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A T-90 tank of the Indian army on maneuvers. India and South Korea are More than 22,000 MRAPs were rushed into production to be field-

two countries actually growing their tank forces. ed by the United States in Iraq and Afghanistan between November

2007 and May 2012. About 30 percent of those will be a new second-generation MRAP all-terrain vehicle (M-ATV), making it the second most-produced light wheeled vehicle and third in market value (11.66 percent) worldwide through 2019, according to Forecast.

Several companies around the globe have produced MRAP designs, and demand for the vehicles, while now declining for U.S. forces, especially the Marine Corps, which initiated the requirement, is expected to remain high as other nations, especially in the Middle East and across Asia, seek to enhance their force protection. However, with more than 70 percent of the world's bridges unable to bear the MRAP's weight - which also severely restricts its transportability - it generally is seen as a short-term solution.

Whether a Humvee, MRAP, Ground Combat Vehicle (the planned replacement for the canceled U.S. Army Future Combat System manned ground vehicle) or other platform, such vehicles are seen as increasingly important not only to protecting land forces but also to providing

Navy Lcu Replacement

U.S. Navy Landing Craft Utility (LCU) 1627 prepares to land and unload Republic of Korea forces and cargo, along with U.S. soldiers from Okinawa, Japan. The tank coming off the ramp of the LCU is a Korean-made Type 88 K1 Main Battle Tank with a 105 mm M68 rifled tank gun. South Korea is growing and modernizing 4its tank force.

U.S. Navy Landing Craft Utility (LCU) 1627 prepares to land and unload Republic of Korea forces and cargo, along with U.S. soldiers from Okinawa, Japan. The tank coming off the ramp of the LCU is a Korean-made Type 88 K1 Main Battle Tank with a 105 mm M68 rifled tank gun. South Korea is growing and modernizing 4its tank force.

the base for a more extensive linkage of individual warfighters into an overall battlespace network.

Both the United States and Europe are leading the way in that arena.

The French FELIN, an infantryman-integrated communications equipment system scheduled for operational deployment in late 2011, incorporates an electro-optical weapon sight, mini-computer display screen for real-time data updates, and voice recognition.

In Germany, the Infantryman of the Future program is working to enable troops to integrate directly with various combat vehicles to recharge individual components and use the vehicle radio to communicate with other units and higher command. Scheduled to begin delivery in 2012, it will enable German soldiers to connect, by voice and data, to a battle management system at the platoon level and below for the first time.

Meanwhile, the U.K., Switzerland, Spain, and the Czech Republic all have "future soldier" programs under way to enhance warfighter integration with land vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and kinetic firepower assets. By promoting core capabilities in command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence (C4I), systems such as Britain's Future Integrated Soldier Technology - set for fielding within the next decade - will support combat commanders' real-time situ-ational awareness, including friendly and enemy troop locations.

As such capabilities are developed and fielded to land forces worldwide, the ability to synchronize the movement and actions, not only of individual nation warfighters but coalition forces - human and machine - is expected to substantially improve all aspects of combat operations.

Another trend seeing both individual nation and joint efforts is to equip ground forces with next-generation air defense capabilities - a global market that has been estimated at $28 billion through 2020. Forecast predicts some 30 companies around the globe will be involved in the production of approximately 80,000 surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and Integrated Air Defense Systems (IADS).

Raytheon Missile Systems, which recently began low-rate initial production of its extended-range Standard Missile-6 air defense missile, has begun technical discussions with Czech defense electronics firm RETIA and Poland's WZU Military Armament Works on upgrading Eastern Europe's aging Soviet-built 2K12 Kub/SA-6 Gainful self-propelled SAM systems. Raytheon also is working with Rafael Armament Development Authority on the Stunner rocket defense array, as well as a terminal phase interceptor system to meet medium SAM requirements.

However, budget cuts for most of the world's defense departments F could mean a reduced global market for many of the newer, more tech- USA nically advanced systems now in development or production, leading ~ many nations to concentrate on upgrading legacy systems, such as ^ the Kub/Gainful. Even nations where defense spending remains strong, s such as Israel, could be affected by cuts in U.S. and European pro- -s grams. On the other hand, international orders also may keep some $ programs and production lines going. -5

Russia, Poland, and Israel all are moving forward with new or up- > graded short- and medium-range ground-based defenses, while Turkey °

Mrap Bushmaster
Overlooking the green zone on a crystal clear Afghan day, an Australian Bushmaster from the First Mentoring Task Force patrols north of Tarin Kowt. The Bushmaster represents one of the more successful MRAP designs produced around the world over the past decade.

continues to pursue acquisition of new low altitude point defense and medium altitude and long-range area defense systems.

For most of the world's militaries, force projection much beyond their own land borders is not a major concern, making the ability to use existing infrastructure - such as bridges - far more important than moving equipment by sea or air. Speed, flexibility, and survivability, along with improved ground weapons firing range and lethality, are the key issues for most ministries of defense, even for nations boasting some level of air and sea power or even missiles or nuclear warheads.

India, for example, meets all those, but its major military threats are insurgencies and an ongoing conflict with Pakistan and potential confrontation with China: two of several bordering nations - most considered unstable - and both also nuclear powers. According to Ashley Tellis, a senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, that mix strongly affects India's military force structure, especially "because India's internal insurgencies, at least in some cases, have some external connection."

"Substantial fractions of your military capacity have to be diverted from their proper external defense function to coping with what are internal threats. Because the internal insurgencies have some external links, you end up having to start thinking of at least how some of your military capabilities will be used not merely to defeat the insurgency, but also their foreign sponsors, and so both those elements become interactive in this process," Tellis said at a Brookings Institute session on India in September 2010.

"The army faces the biggest burden on the first issue because internal insurgencies are manpower-intensive. It actually prevents the capitalization or the recapitalization of the Indian army because they simply cannot trade labor for machines because they need boots on the ground to support [the fight against] these insurgencies. But if you have to start thinking of dealing with the foreign sponsors or the foreign supporters of your insurgency, most of the contingencies that Indians think about today involve the use of military forces that are rapid, flexible, and don't involve unnecessary escalation, which most people believe ground forces do. So the air power component [and] the naval components become relevant."

For nations involved in border or small geographic conflicts, especially across Asia, a centerpiece of army operations has been artillery. A prime example was the 1999 Kargil conflict in Kashmir between India and Pakistan.

Both Sweden and Norway bought two dozen BAE Systems/Bofors 155 mm Archer howitzers during the year.

"During the Kargil episode, the artillery firepower became a battle-winning factor in ensuring that the will of the enemy was seriously degraded," Gen. Vijay Kumar Singh, India's army chief of staff, told the International Seminar on Artillery Technology in May 2010, adding that India is expanding and updating its artillery for extended range during the next 10 years.

India's modernization efforts in that arena are expected to benefit the entire land combat industry, according to research firm Frost & Sullivan, as new artillery procurement increases worldwide.

Singapore, for example, recently acquired the 70-kilometer range High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS) and is pursuing new combat systems collaborations with New Zealand, where it performs artillery live-fire exercises.

In March, Sweden and Norway each ordered 24 Archer self-propelled 155 mm field howitzers and 24 resupply vehicles. BAE Systems Bofors AB is scheduled to deliver the guns, which can fire all types of conventional 155 mm international ammunition, including the U.S.made Excalibur precision round, through 2013.

In an interview with Defence IQ, a division of the International Quality and Productivity Center, prior to speaking to the Armoured Vehicles Europe 2010 conference in August, Czech army Lt. Col. Jaromir Maresh, deputy chief of the Logistics Department at the University of Defense in Brno, raised another issue of growing importance to all armies - in-theater maintenance, including compatible parts.

"In theater, during missions, it's necessary to acknowledge that the recovery of vehicles and the maintenance or repair of those vehicles must be looked into several times a day. But as we have experienced, there are problems with the compatibility of vehicle parts. It is also a challenge to transport immobile vehicles or tanks," he said. "One [solution] is to have standard procedures for recovery and have current vehicles equipped with those additional necessary fixings. Another way is to ensure that the new equipment has components of sizes and shapes which are compatible with the equipment used by our NATO partners.

"One of the most essential things that needs to be emphasized is the economical viewpoint - dealing with the cost of operating equipment and how expensive is maintenance. I believe we should look at recognizing the basic feature of maintenance as being prevention. That said, the common aim that we all share is to operate with a minimal range of equipment, so as to ensure compatibility across units and allied nations."

Despite unchallenged air and sea power, the United States and its allies have been at war in Southwest Asia for nearly a decade - not against the original governments and armies of Iraq and Afghanistan, which fell in a matter of weeks, but against insurgents and terrorists. It has largely been a ground war, with even air support limited by the urban nature of the fight in Iraq and the mountainous terrain in Afghanistan.

But terrorists and insurgents have become the primary military opponent worldwide, from the Philippines to Spain, the U.K. to Bali, Somalia to Chechnya. It is asymmetrical, irregular warfare, with an enemy who combines modern technology with handmade bombs, rockets

Continued on page 88

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