Historical Images Of Bagua

My Mistake

In the last issue I had two mistakes in Kent Howard's article on page 18. The first was that in the photo sequence, photos 3 and 4 are reversed. Secondly the characters for Xin Xin Xiang Ying were incorrect. I used:

however, the correct characters should have been:

My apologies to Kent.

New Catalog

Those of you who have been loyal subscribers for a while may have noticed that with each issue you receive we have been adding more and more items to our catalog. We are trying to sell more items for two reasons. One it helps bring some money in to support the Journal. We do not have paid advertising in this Journal like in other magazines and so our only revenue is from subscriptions. Due to the rising cost of paper and postage, the cost of producing this Journal has gradually increased every year. However, I do not want to raise the subscription price. So in selling items in our catalog that are of interest to our readers, we are helping to keep the Journal going without having to raise the subscription rate.

The second reason I have been carrying some of the new items in the catalog is that I have frequently been asked by readers, "Do you know where I can get good weapons?," "Do you know where I can get good books on Chinese Medicine?," Do you know of any good books on Chinese philosophy?" etc. We are starting to provide these things for our readers convenience.

As for our own projects, Park Bok Nam's new book and video tape The Fundamentals of Pa Kua Chang, Volume II will be available on the first of December.

We have had a tremendous response to our pre-publication sale and are looking forward to sending that book and tape to all who have ordered it.

Coming in February, look for Tim Cartmell's outstanding presentation of throwing techniques in his book and video: Effortless Combat Throws.




1) Fu Zhen Song holding the "monkey posture"

2) Sha Guo Cheng demonstrates the "lion" posture

3) Sun Lu Tang perfoming the "snake" posture

4) Sun Xi Kun in the "upper and lower standing palm" posture

Ba Gua Zhang's Eight Mother Palms

The concept, idea and/or practice of Ba Gua Zhang's "Eight Mother Palms" has different meaning within each of the different styles and lineages of Ba Gua Zhang. Therefore, presenting the Eight Mother Palms is impossible because there is no such thing as the Eight Mother Palms in Ba Gua. Every system of Ba Gua approaches the theory and practice of the Eight Mother Palms in a different manner and so we cannot categorically describe the Eight Mother Palms and be fair to all practitioners. In this article, I will attempt to present a few of the most prominent theories relating to the Eight Mother Palms and describe how these theories are applied in practice by some of the schools of Ba Gua.

Because the name "Eight Mother Palms" implies "that from which all else is born," we can see the significance the Mother Palms might have on the entire system and strategy of the art. In many schools of Ba Gua Zhang, the entire art is "born" out of the eight "mothers" and the eight mothers each have a connection to one of the eight trigrams of the Yi Jing ). As in the Chinese philosophy for which the art is named, the eight trigrams are combined to make the sixty-four hexagrams and the hexagrams are representative of the "ten thousand things" (i.e., all possibilities). In many schools of Ba Gua, this theory and its underlying philosophy become very important to the practice and application of the art. However, not all practitioners feel the same way about these philosophical connections. Some valid schools of Ba Gua Zhang do not even have any practice or theory which they relate to the Eight Mother Palms. Therefore, before we dive into a discussion of the "theory" and practice of the Eight Mother Palms, it is appropriate that we take a look at how philosophical connections to the practice of the physical martial arts are viewed by various practitioners.

The Philosophical Connection

Among Ba Gua enthusiasts there is always a debate about how the physical art of Ba Gua Zhang relates theoretically to the eight trigrams of the Yi Jing, for which the art is named. Out of this debate, we typically run into three different general schools of thought. There are those that believe that there is absolutely no connection between physical martial arts and Chinese philosophy, there are those that believe that there is a deep connection because the internal arts are rooted in the principles of the philosophy, and then there are those who take the beliefs of the second group to grander proportions by relating all aspects of every part of the body and physical movement to philosophy, geomancy, and cosmology. So, basically we encounter two extremes and a "middle of the road."

In addition to the controversy among the three groups described above, there is also a great deal of debate within the "middle of the road" groups who do believe that the philosophy does relate to the practice. These debates arise because the various groups have differing views of exactly how, and to what degree, the philosophy relates to the physical art, the physical body, and the applications. However, in light of the vastness of the ba gun, philosophy, this debate seems trivial. The ba gua philosophy is such a universal model for the patterns of nature, natural existence, and human nature, that the number the correspondences one can draw from it are endless. Therefore, because one school, one instructor, or one practitioner sees the relationships one way and others might see them differently, does not mean that one is right and one is wrong. The one thing the philosophy of ba gua should tell us is that everything is constantly changing and that all possibilities should be explored. Therefore, in the next section of this article, instead of talking about exactly what the correspondences between the trigrams and the physical art are, we will talk about why some might believe in these correspondences and why others do not.

The Debate

The first group we encounter when we bring up the topic of the Ba Gua Zhang's relationship with philosophical principles are those who say that the physical martial arts have absolutely no connection with Chinese philosophy. While this group does believe in martial arts principles and the study of physical body mechanics, it does not necessarily believe that the understanding of martial arts is aided by studying connections between martial arts practice and the eight trigrams, Yi Jing, five elements, or yin/yang theory. This group argues that the martial artists who developed and practice these arts were uneducated farmers who became very good at martial arts because

Ba Gua Zhang scholar Zeng Xing San was the first to write about the philosophical connections between Ba Gua Zhang and Yi Jing theory.

they spent a lot of time practicing and applying the arts. They developed a very efficient fighting method based on the trials and errors of those who came before them and their own personal experiences. Because they were uneducated, they were not prone to think about any type of philosophical connections to what they were doing. Most of them could not even read. They were good because they had a systematic method, practiced hard, and refined their skills through practical fighting experiences.

This first group will continue their argument by saying that the arts of Tai Ji Quan, Xing Yi Quan, and Ba Gua Zhang, had little connection to Chinese philosophy until scholars (like Sun Lu Tang (w^'Sr ), who was the first to publish publicly about these connections) began constructing these philosophical correspondences. Many of the "nonbelievers" in philosophical connections to martial arts will tell you that the real fighting arts of Tai Ji, Xing Yi, and Ba Gua were severely diluted when these scholars came on the scene. They will usually admit that correspondences can be constructed, however, they do not believe that these correspondences are of any great value to practical martial arts study. They believe that these correspondences were not part of the martial arts originally, but were added later by scholars who practice the martial arts for health. Their attitude is that, "people who are good at martial arts are good because they practice martial arts, not because they read philosophy."

This group continues by saying that when scholars started practicing martial arts for health and writing about martial arts philosophy, it brought the martial arts out of the realistic fighting mode and into people's heads. People began to think about martial arts instead of practice real fighting arts. While some degree of martial arts thought and research is valuable, practitioners who frown on philosophical connections believe that many who have written about these things have gone too far overboard. These practitioners believe that the time thinking about martial arts is better spent studying physical body mechanics, alignments, and connections, not trigrams and hexagrams.

If we take a look at these topics from a historical perspective, the individuals who say that philosophy was not originally a part of internal martial arts do have a case. Before we move on to discuss another side of the debate, we will examine exactly how the connections between the martial art Ba Gua Zhang and the Eight Trigrams of the Yi Jing might have occurred.

The Origin of the Philosophical Connection

At the same time in history that scholars began to write about martial arts, the "martial arts for health" phenomenon in China was beginning to grow and so in many instances the internal arts were indeed taken out of the realm of realistic fighting applications. It is historical fact that prior to Sun Lu Tang's writing, the majority of educated people in China looked down

Chen Jiagou Taiji Chenshitong

Ji Feng Xiang (seated, second from right) was an Yi Jing philosopher and friend to Cheng Ting Hua who help Cheng develop the "Nine Palaces" branch of this Ba Gua on martial artists and the martial arts. Sun himself wrote about this in the forward to his first book Xing Yi Quan Xue (The Study of Form Mind Boxing) published in 1915. Sun said, "There was a prejudice in the old days that literates despised martial arts as martial artists were short on literary learning." So it is probably true that prior to the early 1900's the martial artist who were best known for their martial arts skill did not think too much about philosophy.

Another theory related to the connection between Ba Gua Zhang and the Eight Trigrams, which many martial arts historians and scholars take to be fact concerning the origins of Ba Gua Zhang, is that Dong Hai Chuan I) did not originally call his art "Ba

Gua Zhang" and talked little, if any, about philosophical correspondences when he first started teaching his art. There is some documented evidence, written by second generation instructor Zeng Xing San (^ and currently owned by Professor Kang Ge Wu {M % ^ ), that the art we know today as Ba Gua Zhang was originally called Zhuan Zhang (^t" % - rotating palm). Later the name was changed to Ba Gua Zhuan Zhang and then later shortened to Ba Gua Zhang. It is not clear whether or Dong Hai Chuan changed the name himself, or if his students changed it.

As far as documented evidence of the philosophical connection between the martial art Ba Gua Zhang and the eight trigrams of the Yi Jing is concerned, the first known occurrence of the ba gua philosophy as it relates to the martial art of Ba Gua Zhang appeared in an unpublished text called Ba Gua Zhuan Zhang Hui Lan

%) written by Zeng Xing San (1862-1951). Zeng Xing San, who was also known as Zeng Zeng Qi (If^f was a well known Manchurian scholar who worked in the Palace of Su and began his study of Ba Gua Zhang with Yin Fu (^"^S). Zeng was highly educated and in the imperial examinations he had reached the second highest level of achievement. While Zeng was studying with Yin Fu, he was taken to see Dong Hai Chuan on many occasions and discussed the principles of the art with Dong.

After the fall of the Qing government (1911), Zeng Xing San was out of a job and thus had a lot of time on his hands. To occupy himself, Zeng began to write down all that he learned from Dong Hai Chuan and Yin Fu. In his manuscript, Zeng used the theory of the Yi Jing to explain the martial art of Ba Gua Zhang. This book was also the first known book to contain the 36 songs and 48 methods of Ba Gua Zhang. His handwritten manuscript was later given to his friend Guo Gu Min (fP Guo Gu Min in turn gave the manuscript to his younger classmate Li Zi Ming ( and Li Zi Ming gave it to Professor Kang Ge Wu of the Beijing Martial Arts Research Institute. Kang says that in the book, Zeng explains that Dong Hai Chuan did not relate his martial art to the theory of the eight trigrams until late in his life.

Another scholar who had a great influence on the way the martial art of Ba Gua Zhang was combined with Chinese philosophy was Cheng Ting Hua's

Feng Min Art

Sun Lu Tang wrote the first publically published documents which related Chinese philosophy and internal martial arts

) friend and student, Ji Feng Xiang (:Mm^m). Ji was a Chinese astrologer and Yi Jing scholar who used his knowledge to help Cheng Ting Hua develop the "Nine Palace" branch of his Ba Gua Zhang. In this branch of Cheng Ting Hua's Ba Gua Zhang, the theories of the ba gua and Yi Jing are closely related to all aspects of practice. The modern day representative of this school in Beijing, eighty-six year old Liu Xing Han (^'J ), has notebooks full of diagrams and explanations of how these philosophical principles relate to the martial arts. Ji Feng Xiang's scholarly influence on Cheng Ting Hua was also important because it lead to Sun Lu Tang writing the first publicly published documents which related Daoist philosophical principles to the martial arts.

Sun Lu Tang's daughter, Sun Jian Yun (3M1] said that it was Cheng Ting Hua who told Sun in 1891,

"The boxing skills of our school are closely related with the theory of the Yi Jing. If you want to climb the holy platform, it is necessary for you to study the origin and understand the theory of the Yi Jing. I know that some people in Sichuan Province are especially skilled in these theories. You should travel there."

Later, in 1894, Sun went to Sichuan Province and Wu Dang mountain to study the Yi Jing. While in Sichuan he met a monk named Zhi Zhen fa k and studied Yi Jing theory. After a short stay in Sichuan, Sun traveled to Wu Dang mountain in Hubei Province. At Wu Dang, Sun studied the "immortality skill" of Daoism with the chief Daoist at the temple, Jing Xu (frM).

Taking Cheng Ting Hua's words to heart, Sun Lu Tang had studied the theories of Daoist philosophy and contemplated how these theories are related to the styles of martial arts that he had been taught. He wrote about many of his theories in the five books that he published (the first being published in 1915, the last in 1927). Although Sun wrote about these connections to some degree, his presentation and style were such that there was not a very clear message about exactly how the philosophy related directly to the martial arts practice and application. His analogies leave much to interpretation and I would assume this was probably done purposefully because any tight analogies or interpretations would limit the vast philosophy and the art of Ba Gua Zhang. ^ , , , , , , ,

With the exception of Sun Lu Tang and a few others, most of the scholars who have practiced emd taught toe internal martial arts since the early part of this century have not been known as great fighters. This fact has led some to believe that studying the philosophy does not help understand the fighting arts. When the scholars, who primarily practiced the arts for health, began writing about the martial arts relationships with Chinese philosophy, in many instances, their correspondences had little to do with actual fighting application, theory, or strategy, so it is reasonable that some practitioners would adapt this attitude, however, this was not always the case.

Most martial arts theories, whether handed down by scholars or fighters, are very sound and very applicable to the real execution of martial arts. Problems arise when individuals try to tie martial arts fighting and application too tightly or too meticulously to philosophical concepts. Both the boxing and the philosophy are such that they need room to breath.

The art of boxing has too many variables and the

Chinese philosophy allows too vast an interpretation for any association to be too extreme. This extremism brings us to the second school of thought in this debate.

The Debate Continues

Since the dawn of the "martial arts for health" movement in the 1920's, there have been scholars, intellectuals, and researchers who have become fascinated with the internal martial arts and their "mysteries." In order to try and explain these mysteries (or in many cases shroud them deeper in mystery)

Feelings Chart For Adults

The Early Heaven Trigram Arrangement and its associations in the Gong Bao Tian System of Ba Gua Zhang as taught by Huang Zhi Cheng

Bagua Arrangement

these scholars have borrowed theories from Chinese philosophy. Not many of these individuals are especially known for practical martial arts skill, however, they have devised endless correspondences between the eight trigrams and martial arts practice in all its various facets.

A typical scenario would be that someone who is more interested in philosophy and thinking about martial arts than actual practicing the physical martial arts studies from a teacher who teaches Ba Gua but does not say much about philosophy. The teacher does not talk about the philosophy for one of two reasons:

A) He does not feel it is important.

B) He feels that the student needs a strong foundation in the physical skills before the philosophy can be understood.

The student feels that since the art is called "Ba Gua," there must be correspondences to the Eight Trigrams of the Yi Jing and so he begins to conduct his own research and finds correspondences. Since the philosophy is a very universal model, there are bound to be numerous correspondences that he will discover. Depending on the student's depth of understanding about the art of Ba Gua Zhang as it is practiced for both martial and internal cultivation purposes, he may or may not come up with useful and valid connections. Later this individual obtains students of his own, teaches a form, and spends a lot of time vocalizing all of the philosophical correspondences he has discovered. His student's think he "knows" a lot because of all the intellectual concepts he can relate about the art. Unfortunately, in many instances, the students can talk about the art all day, but cannot really do much physically.

Some of this second group's intellectualizing has led to interesting relationships and helpful correspondences, others are interesting to think about, but do not seem to serve much practical purpose. Unfortunately, many of these individuals have gone overboard in their intellectualizations and have created esoteric language and mysterious symbology without clear interpretation. In most instances this degree of mental concentration on the physical art has brought too much complexity to something that should be fairly straight forward. Sun Lu Tang, who was known for bringing philosophy to the martial arts, had a one word answer when people asked him about the "secrets" of the internal martial arts - his answer: "practice."

On the positive side, the scholars who have studied the internal martial arts and drawn philosophical correspondences have helped to broaden the martial arts and the martial artist's perception of the arts. These individuals are somewhat responsible for bringing the concepts of martial morality and martial virtue to the eyes and ears of the practitioners. Without the philosophy and the scholars who teach it, the martial arts might have only been handed down to bullies and thugs. So one cannot say that individuals who intellectualize more than they practice or apply the martial arts do not have things to teach us all.

The Middle of the Road

The third school of thought in this debate believes that there is a valuable connection between the martial arts and Chinese philosophy, however, they keep it simple. They do not go overboard in drawing an overabundance of intricate correspondences and relationships, yet they believe the relationships to be significant and of value to the practitioner. Usually these instructors ensure that their students have a strong foundation and experience in the physical practice before they begin talking about philosophy.








Qian Gua



Beginning of Winter

9 p.m.


z z

Kun Gua



Starting of Fall

3 p.m.



Kan Gua



Absolute Winter

12 p.m.


Li Gua



Mid Summer

12 noon



Zhen Gua



Dividing of Spring

6 a.m.



Gen Gua


Keeping Still

Starting of Spring

3 a.m.


Xun Gua



Starting of Summer

9 a.m.


Dui Gua



Dividing of Fall

6 p.m.


Some Standard Eight Trigram Relationships

Beginners need to build a base of physical knowledge and skill before they can appreciate and understand how the philosophical concepts relate to the martial art. Since my own school of Ba Gua, the method of Lu Shui Tian as taught by Park Bok Nam, falls into this category, I will provide some examples from Park's teaching as it is the most familiar to me.

Park Bok Nam believes that the art of Ba Gua Zhang was founded on the theoretical principles of yin/yang, ba gua (eight trigrams), and wu xing (five elements). He refers to these three concepts in Chinese philosophy as the theoretical "trinity" upon which all Ba Gua Zhang strategy, training, and technique is based. Park believes that every aspect of Ba Gua Zhang adheres to the principles of this trinity. If one component is missing, the practice, technique, or application will be unbalanced and incomplete. In this regard, he makes an analogy to sustainable life on earth. He says that the sun and the moon are represented by the yin and yang. The five elements represents the earth, and the constant rotational movement of the sun and moon around the earth is symbolized by the Ba Gua. Just as life could not exist without all three of these components (sun and moon, earth, and constant motion), Park says that a Ba Gua technique which does not contain all three principles of the trinity is "dead."

A few examples of the philosophical trinity not being complete in an application of a martial arts technique would be as follows:

1) If a practitioner executes a technique and does not obtain the most efficient angle of attack, the ba gua theory of utilizing angles in positioning the body optimally has not been followed. The theory and angles and linear motion is expressed in the Fu Xi, or "early heaven" arrangement of the trigrams.

2) If in executing the applications the practitioner does not use the rotational, circling, and spiraling principles to overcome his opponent with the least amount of force, resistance, and invasiveness, the ba gua theory of utilizing circular and rotational motions is being ignored. The theory of circular and cyclical patterns of motion is expressed in the King Wen, or "later heaven," arrangement of the trigrams.

3) If in the execution of a technique, the practitioner focuses too strongly on one direction and gets hit from another, the ba gua theory of extending awareness to all eight directions has been forgotten. This theory is expressed in the balancing of eight directions expressed in the early heaven arrangement of the trigrams.

4) If the practitioner uses force which is not appropriate for the technique, either in trying to overpower the opponent, applying force at the wrong time, or applying force at an incorrect angle, then five element theory has been violated because the creative and destructive properties of the five elements are not flowing naturally.

5) If the practitioner's movements are not stable and balance, if one movement or application cannot connect to the next in a fluid, smooth, and even manner, if the practitioner ignores low while striking high, or forgets the left while moving to the right, then the yin/yang

WtAj i

WtAj i

Trigram Relationships in Written Works

Trf History Examples

*>tJt-esi,M it trf^ifi \ 4M J* i. !«h A à f ^ ktj-

*>tJt-esi,M it trf^ifi \ 4M J* i. !«h A à f ^ ktj-

Gao Yisheng

Gao Yi Sheng's Ba Gua Book

Liu Xing Han's Personal Notes

Gao Yi Sheng's Ba Gua Book principle has not be followed.

A few examples of a practitioner not following the philosophical trinity in designing a training program would be as follows:

1) Not considering every possible fighting scenario in practicing the art would violate the combinatorial aspects of the Ba Gua. This not only applies to such combinations of high/low, left/right, inside/outside, attack/defense, and long range/short range as was discussed in Park Bok Nam's book The Fundamentals of Pa Kua Chang, but also considerations of environment and terrain, such as light/dark, rough/smooth, hilly/flat, or open/confined should be considered when practicing. Additionally, the practitioner considers the type of opponent he or she might be facing. Is the opponent tall/short, heavy/light, left handed/right handed, fast/slow, a puncher or kicker, an inside fighter or outside fighter, a grappler or a boxer, etc. In order to follow the combinatorial theories of the Ba Gua, the practitioner considers all combinations of these yin/yang pairs when researching his or her art. For instance, the practitioner may ask himself, "How would I best handle a large, strong, slow grappler on rocky terrain?" And of course the combinations can become more complex. One may be fighting a large, fast opponent who is skilled at using all sixteen of his striking weapons and the fight might take place in a dark, confined environment (like a crowded bar). If all of these scenarios are not addressed in training, the practitioner is violating the ba gua combinatorial theory and thus the practice is not complete.

2) If the practitioner does not practice a balanced program of qi gong which addresses all of the major yin organs and their respective energy states in a balanced manner, the five element system of checks and balances is not being addressed. If the practitioner is concentrating too heavily on any one aspect of training and ignoring others, the five element theory of checks and balances is also being violated. Practicing too much qi gong, too much fighting, too much footwork, too much circle walking, too many palm exercises, too much meditation, or too many breathing exercises, at the expense of all of the other aspects of training is not following the principles of the five element theory.

3) If the practitioner does not balance his or her overall training routine between yang exercise (fighting, power exercises, etc.) and yin exercise (energy building methods of qi gong and meditation), then the overall program is not balanced.

In evaluating a student's martial applications or training program, Park will always look for the presence of the principles of the philosophical trinity. Park says that following the principles of the philosophical trinity means that the student is being natural and the training is complete. He believes that these theories are the theories of nature and all things that are natural follow these theories. Ba Gua Zhang is an art which follows natural principles belonging to the earth, the environment, and the human. Because these principles are natural, they can be used universally and adapt

Sun And Moon Trigrams Yijing

The "Early Heaven" (inner circle) and "Later Heaven" (outer circle) Trigrams as shown in Sun Lu Tang's Ba Gua book to any given situation.

Some may argue that all of the examples given above are really just common sense principles in all martial arts practice and training. This is true. The importance of the philosophy here is in simply providing a model to follow to insure none of the common sense components of martial arts training and application are forgotten.

Some examples of how other schools of Ba Gua relate the trigrams of the Yi Jing to their martial arts practice are as follows:

1) Some schools believe that each of the eight trigrams relate to a specific palm shape. In executing any form movement, the shape of each palm which appears during the movement represents a trigram and thus the two palms combined symbolize the hexagrams of the Yi Jing and the changes of the palms symbolize the changing patterns of the hexagrams. In the execution of the movements and applications which relate to this theory, all combinations of eight palms are represented in the forms and/or in the training and thus the student has practiced all possible combinations of the eight "mothers" in the system.

2) In some schools, each of the three lines of the eight trigrams represent a section of the body (lower, middle, and upper) and each section (gua) of the form is related to a trigram. Therefore, in each particular gua, the student has an idea of how to express the body movements and the energy of that form section. For instance the trigram Li indicates a yang upper body, yin middle body, and yang lower body. Therefore in the Li Gua of the form, these practitioners will be taught

Jing Energy Extrem

Zhang Shou Lin presenting a paper on Yi Jing philosophy as it relates to Ba Gua Zhang at the 1995 International Ba Gua Zhang Conference in Beijing, September 1995

to be expressive in the upper and lower parts of the body and receptive in the middle section of the body. In transitioning through all eight sections of the form in this manner, the practitioner has studied all possible combinations of the upper, middle, and lower body movements and energies.

3) In some schools, each section of an eight section form is represented by the characteristics of a trigram as it is expressed in an "animal" style. For instance, the lion gua relates to the Jian trigram (three solid lines) and is totally yang in its character, expression, energy and application. Conversely, the unicorn gua relates to the Kun trigram (three broken lines) and thus is totally receptive and evasive in its martial energy and expression. Each "animal" have their own characteristics based on the trigram meanings and thus in the practice of the entire system, the practitioner has learned all of the various characteristics, energies, and expressions of the entire art. The "eight animal" system will be discussed in greater detail later in this article.

4) In some schools, each trigram relates to a different part of the body or internal organ. Typically, four trigrams will relate to external body parts and four trigrams will relate to internal organs or energies. In executing the movements of the form which corresponds to each trigram, the practitioner feels the energy, movement, and power of the form come from that particular part of the body or internal organ.

5) In some schools each section of their primary eight section form corresponds to a particular trigram. The characteristics and energies of that particular section of the form are related to the characteristics of the trigram to which it corresponds. Out of each section, the form is further divided into eight movements and/or applications which can be practiced separately from the form in straight line sets. Eight techniques coming out of eight sections of the form make for 64 separate techniques, thus a correspondence to the hexagrams of the Yi Jing.

The list above describes only a few of the relationships and correspondences which appear in various schools of Ba Gua Zhang. Because the philosophy is so vast and the relationships of the philosophy to the martial art are many, interpretation is left open to each individual. Regardless of whether or not Dong Hai Chuan related his art to philosophical concepts or they were added later by scholars who studied the art, the fact remains that today the majority of the schools of Ba Gua Zhang utilize Chinese philosophical concepts to research and develop their martial arts in both practice and application. In the next section, I will present a historic perspective regarding how some of the theories of Chinese philosophy have been universally adapted in the development, practice, and application of the martial arts.

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