In writing this book, I am grateful to many friends for their assistance and encouragement. Dr. Seymour Kleinman's advice and academic guidance has been of great help. I am particularly indebted to my teacher, Master Ch'ang Tung-sheng, who helped me enter the gate of Shuai Chiao. I am also deeply grateful to my fraternity brothers in the Shuai Chiao Committee of the Society of Physical Education of Taipei in Taiwan, R.O.C.
The materials I have put in this book came mainly from my previous study, practice and research on Shuai Chiao. Among the works in which I participated, and which are most important to me, are: A) The Shuai Chiao Text Video Cassette, produced by the Department of Physical Education at the Military Political College; B) The Shuai Chiao Text Film produced by the Central Police College; and C) my own Master of Education thesis entitled: A Comparative Study on the Basic Shuai Chiao and Judo Throwing Techniques, published by National Taiwan Normal University, 1975.
Furthermore, I wish to thank my students at The Ohio State University, the American Shuai Chiao Academy, Inc., and the Ho-i Martial Arts Academy, for their cooperation and assistance.
I also wish to thank Mr. Felix R. Jih and Allen Siegal for preparing most of the pictures in which my students, Allen Siegal, Muhammad A. Rashid, David Dance, Joe Cooley, Joseph A. Laronge and myself demonstrate. These pictures were later on converted to drawings by a professional artist for the sake of clarity, and to make step by step learning easier.
The beautiful Chinese calligraphy was graciously done by Mr. C.Y. Woo and Professor Eugene Ching. Many of the rare historical photos were supplied by Dr. Wen-chung Wu. Also, I wish to thank Dr. Seymour Kleinman, Dr. Fred Wu, Mr. George Funakoshi and my former Kung Fu teacher Master Adam Hsu, for kindly writing the forewords to this book.
Finally, I would like to thank Professor David Ch'en for creating a descriptive poem both in Chinese and English for this book.
Chi-hsiu Daniel Weng President
Ho-i Martial Arts Academy Columbus, Ohio October 10,1984
Mural from 5 B.C. Han Dynasty unearthed in Shan-hsi Province entitled "Chiao Ti" (Shuai Chiao).
It is particularly appropriate that Shuai Chiao comes to us through the person of Chi-hsiu Daniel Weng because it is the classic meeting of East and West with all of the ingredients such a relationship should contain. Mr. Weng is here both as a student and teacher-receiver and giver. He brings with him and offers to us Shuai Chiao, the oldest and most complete form of Kung Fu; and at the same time we are offering him a Western education. Mr. Weng is a Ph.D. candidate in Physical Education at Ohio State University. As his advisor it is quite evident to me that Daniel Weng is giving every bit as much as he is receiving. This book is ample evidence of it.
In addition, Shuai Chiao may be viewed as one more manifestation of the increasing interest in and influence of Eastern sport and movement forms in the West. Yet, there can be no more appropriate place for the meeting of East and West than in the Olympics. Daniel Weng is convinced that one day Shuai Chiao will be an Olympic event. Having witnessed the enormous growth of the martial arts in this country over the past decade, I too am convinced that the Eastern movement forms have a legitimate place in international competition. It is certainly an idea whose time has come.
Perhaps of even greater significance is the overriding philosophy which permeates the martial art forms of the East. The emphasis on tranquility, centeredness, focus and use of energy is capable of teaching us in the West a great deal about ourselves and our relationships with others.
Seymour Kleinman Professor, Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio May 9, 1979
An illustration of a Chinese Shuai Chiao match from the Ming Dynasty novel Water Margins.
Shuai Chiao is a martial art which was unknown to the western world with the closing of China's borders early in the century. The year 1978 brought the opening of trade between China and the western world. Also in this year the art of Shuai Chiao was first brought to the United States by Mr. Weng from Taiwan, the Republic of China.
I am pleased that he is sharing his knowledge of Shuai Chiao with us as he continues his studies for the Doctor of Philosophy of Physical Education at The Ohio State University.
I am impressed that Master Weng has chosen to introduce his martial art through the higher education system of the United States, rather than a private enterprise system reaching only a small number of interested people. He is concerned that Shuai Chiao be learned in a scientific educational manner to maintain the integrity of this ancient Chinese martial art while reaching the most people.
The first book on Shuai Chiao is a translation of the philosophy, characteristics and application of techniques and it is written in a manner that will be easily understood by Western people. Shuai Chiao combines techniques found in Judo, Kung Fu, Karate and Jujitsu. I believe the martial art of Shuai Chiao will become as popular in the western world as it is in China and Taiwan, its homelands. Thanks to the efforts of Master Weng and his book, this may become a reality.
George Funakoshi Head Judo Instructor The Ohio State University
Kuo Shu (Chinese martial arts; commonly known as "Kung Fu" in the West) was required Physical Education in many Chinese high schools and colleges during the twenties, thirties and forties. Living in Canton (in Southern China) I encountered many stylesof Kuo Shu, but had never seen Shuai Chiao. This is because it was a northern Chinese martial art, very popular in the Yellow River area, Mongolia and Manchuria, but not in Southern China.
My college education brought me from the south to the central eastern part of China at that time. Not very far from my college campus was a famous national government-founded institute named the Chung Yang Kuo Shu Kuan (The Central Kuo Shu Institute). This institute was regarded as the highest academy of training and research in Chinese martial arts in the nation. Generals Chang Chi-Chian and Li Ching-Lin were the heads of the Institute. General Li had a martial arts nickname "Shen Chien" (Mysterious Sword) because his swordsmanship was extremely skillful. Master Sun Luk-Tang was the chief instructor of the Institute. Because of their high authority in Kuo Shu, they invited many famous Kung Fu masters from different parts of China to teach their specialized styles at the Institute. Many students were already skillful Kung Fu practitioners themselves, and they were selected and sent to the Institute for advanced studies by their own provincial government Kuo Shu Kuan.
These were the styles that were taught at the Institute that were not taught in Southern China: Chi Ch'uan, Tung Bai Ch'uan, Chang Ch'uan, Me Chung Yi, Mien Chu'uan, and Shuai Chiao.
Master Ch'ang Tung Sheng, who was selected and sent there by the Hopei province as a graduate student for advanced students, later became an instructor of Shuai Chiao at the Institute after his graduation. He was young at the time and was the captain of the Nanking Shuai Chiao team. His Shuai Chiao skill was originally trained and taught by his grandfather, father and many famous teachers in Hopei province. He was given the nickname of "The Flying Butterfly" because his skill was fantastic and amazing. His name was well known in the Yellow River area, the Northern Chinese provinces, Mongolia and Manchuria. I personally witnessed one of his best tournaments in Shanghai. That was the Shuai Chiao match between the Nanking team and the Shanghai team. The opposing team was led by Master Chou Shi-Pin, one of my Kuo Shu teachers of the Shanghai Ching Woo Athletic Association. Shuai Chiao was very popular in Nanking and Shanghai in those days, even though the Yellow River area of Northern China was its homeland. At that tournament the audience exceeded twenty thousand people. Because of his unbeaten record in Shuai Chiao matches Master Ch'ang gained another nickname: "The Shuai Chiao King of China."
After 1949 Master Ch'ang followed the government of the Republic of China to Taiwan. He continued to teach in the Central Police Academy, colleges and his own studio. The Central Kuo Shu Institute was no longer operated in Taiwan by the government. For the last twenty years, he has devoted most of his time to teaching and training the younger generation in this unique Chinese martial art, Shuai Chiao.
The outstanding features of Shuai Chiao are that it has established a set of well organized rules for tournaments. Their uniforms, boots and other equipment are quite standardized compared with other styles of Kung Fu.
The philosophy and principles of Shuai Chiao are very mucfvthe same as those of T'ai Chi Ch'uan and other internal soft styles, except the Shuai Chiao uses stronger force when executing certain techniques. It also emphasizes the harmony of the Yin and Yang forces, the principle that gentleness or softness (the Yin force) can win over hardness (the Yang force), as mentioned and discussed in Lao Tzu's TAO TE CHING. For further understanding of philosophy and principle the reader is referred to the T'ai chi chuan classics (treaties) written by Chan San-Feng and Wang Chung-Yueh in the Thirteenth century. They are usually included in any good T'ai Chi Ch'uan book.
The techniques of Shuai Chiao are not difficult to learn. In Northern China the saying "San Nien Ch'uan Bu Ru Yi Nien Chiao (Three years training in other Kung Fu is not as effective as one year of Shuai Chiao)" is often heard among Chinese martial artists. It is also a legend that when General Yueh Fei of the Northern Sung Dynasty (690-1127) discovered that some of his army officers and soldiers had difficulty in learning certain styles of Kung Fu for battleground combat, he ordered that Shuai Chiao be put into the army training programs; as a result, "Chang Sheng Yueh Chai Jiun" (The unbeatable General Yueh's army) became well known among the Chinese people.
Since coming to the United States in 1947, I have seen and heard nothing of Shuai Chiao, except in Chinese newspapers and magazines. In the autumn of 1978 I met Mr. Weng Chi-Hsiu (Daniel Weng), who graduated from the National Taiwan Normal University in Taiwan, and had been Master Ch'ang Tung-Sheng's assistant instructor of Shuai Chiao in the Central Police Academy for years. From our conversation I got the impression that he has been a favorite student of Master Ch'ang.
He is now a graduate teaching associate in the Physical Education Department working towards his Ph.D. at Ohio State. Mr. Weng has been actively engaged in organizing the American Shuai Chiao Association, which was incorporated in Ohio in March 1979. He had invited me to be one of several trustees of the Association, an honor enabling me to help promote this part of Chinese culture in America and, hopefully, the whole world. Despite his busy schedule, he has finished writing this Shuai Chiao text book for the Association and all its chartered clubs and schools. It is the first Shuai Chiao book ever published in English, if I am not mistaken.
Mr. Weng asked me to write a foreword for his book, and therefore I am glad to take this opportunity to introduce this ancient Chinese martial art as a brand new martial art to the United States.
President, Dr. Wu's Chinese Kung Fu-Karate and T'ai Chi Ch'uan institute Worthington, Ohio April 30, 1979
In Mongolia Shuai Chiao games were major sporting events.
I first met Daniel Weng when I was teaching in the Physical Education Department of National Taiwan Normal University. By that time Physical Education had been totally Westernized, promoting team sports, swimming, gymnastics, track and field and so on. In my class, Daniel was an excep ional student. He had a strong desire to i./iprove himself, but he also possessed a generous spirit, and so he wanted to serve his poople. Daniel had a vis:on that one day the P.E. Departments in China would emphasize and promote traditions' Chinese sports along with the Western sports that had filled our universities. He was searching for the traditional Chinese sport that he could devote himself to.
When Daniel was introduced to Shuai Chiao, he knew he had found his "way." With characteristic intensity, he began to learn all that he could about Shuai Chiao, seeking out the most famous Shuai Chiao man of them all, Master Ch'ang Tung-sheng; simultaneously, he tried to think of ways to make Shuai Chiao more accessible to other people. When Grand Master Ch'ang began to teach at the University, Daniel helped me form the first Shuai Chiao Club on the campus, and then he helped organize the first Shuai Chiao team to compete at tournaments. Daniel did all of this in addition to his own studies.
Daniel and his teammates entered several Shuai Chiao tournaments and took first and second place. Daniel went on to attend many tournaments and won lots of gold medals. He didn't do it for the gold or the glory, but rather for the experience he knew he would need to properly share his love of Shuai Chiao with others. But Daniel didn't just train his body, he used his brain as well, becoming the first Physical Education Department student to earn a Master's Degree with a thesis on Shuai Chiao. In addition to all of these activities, Daniel still found time to help Grand Master Ch'ang Tung-sheng found the Chinese Shuai Chiao Association in Taipei.
After he had earned his Master's degree, Daniel came to the United States to continue his studies at Ohio State University; of course, he also planned to continue promoting Shuai Chiao, which was virtually unknown in America at that time. He visited a lot of tournaments to meet other martial artists and to introduce himself and Shuai Chiao. He gave workshops, and then he established the first American Shuai Chiao Club on the Ohio State University campus. This was followed by the formation of a Shuai Chiao team, and thereby the founding of the American Shuai Chiao Association. Finally, Ohio State accepted Shuai Chiao as an official course offered in the P.E. Department.
While Daniel Weng's Shuai Chiao follows the most valuable ancient traditions, he has greatly aided Shuai Chiao's transition to our modern world by using contemporary methods to promote it. He could have followed the old way and set himself as some great warrior, master or hero, but rather than focus on his individual accomplishments, Daniel chose to emphasize organization. He helped to set up clear standards, and a ranking system so it would be easier for students to progress. This way studei.;.. could see clearly where they were and how far they had to go. He polished the rules for tournament competition, hoping they would become clearer, j and more fair. These changes also made tou.dents much more enjoyable to watch. All of these things gave Shuai Chiao a very solid foundation. We can expect, based on this, that Shuai Chiao will have a really bright future.
Obviously, the one thing that has been missing is a Shuai Chiao textbook. We have needed one to clearly show the great expanse of Shuai Chiao's expertise. This will help avoid many arguments and misconceptions in the future. A book like this can really help the beginning student learn how to "get in the door"—so they can start to understand what exactly Shuai Chiao has to offer. Of course, every teacher wants a book like this to help in teaching, in organization, and as a reference point for students.
Daniel has spent five years putting this book together. He has revised it many times, he had the pictures converted into figures, and of course, all the while he has been working, studying and practicing his Shuai Chiao. But in spite of all these demanding schedules, the book is now a reality, and I do believe that this is only the beginning. Daniel Weng will continue his study of and dedication to Shuai Chiao, and I will look forward to more volumes on Shuai Chiao as they appear.
Adam Hsu San Francisco September 28, 1984
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