The Text Book Of Close Combat

CHAPTER's 5 & 6 SNATCH SQUADS Arrest and Restraint Team and Stalking Team Tactics and Training

General Warfare Tactics. For Public Information and Research Only.

Snatch Squads

Introduction

Snatch squads are divided into two categories, Arrest and Restraint Teams and Stalking Teams. The duties and tactics of these two groups are interrelated. This chapter will explain some of the training, planning and preparation used by Snatch Squads. This should give the reader a more realistic appraisal of the skills required for this form of combat. This chapter will be divided into four sections.

1. The role, composition, tactics and training of Arrest and Restraint Teams.

2. The role, composition and some of the tactics and training of the Stalking Teams.

3. The offensive grappling techniques used by Stalking Teams.

4. Rear attacks.

Section 1 - Arrest and Restraint Teams

Introduction

Arrest and Restraint Teams are employed in urban environments. They are responsible for detaining individuals for processing through the intelligence and legal system. Arrest and Restraint Teams are constrained by minimum force requirements in their application of restraints and rear attacks. These teams are usually supported by armed and mobile units.

Composition of the Teams

Ideally a 4 person team should be employed to pick up one individual. In a riot situation there are three basic methods of deployment. The first two start from behind friendly lines. This is not the most productive method because the target can see the team coming. Also, the target is difficult to reach without members of the team being injured or captured themselves.

• The team move out fast in diamond formation and run to either the left or the right of the targeted individual. In a riot situation, they should always run past the target to drive back the crowd and isolate the target. Running straight for the target will alert that individual and defeat the aims of the snatch squad.

• The team operate as two pairs. The two pairs run to either side of and behind the target. They then turn and carry out the lift.

• The most productive method of deployment is for the team to operate within the crowd, dressed similarly to the crowd. Upon a prearranged signal, they carry out the lift.

• Another productive method of arrest is to employ the teams in civilian dress from civilian vehicles.

Basic Principles

The four basic principles of come alongs are;

1. Stop. This is the task of Soldiers #1 & 2. The targeted individual must be stopped and isolated from any support or escape routes. At this stage, determine if the target has a weapon in their hands before grappling with them. Attack the nerve points on the legs to either slow down or stop the individual. The upper body nerve points may also have to be attacked.

2. Distract. This is the task of Soldiers #1 & #2. It will be impossible to apply a restraint without first distracting the individual. Distractions include more strikes to the main nerve points in order to temporarily disable the limb you are going for.

3. Restrain. As soon as one of the team applies a successful lock the other team member reinforces that lock with their own lock. The sequence of events is dictated by the targets response. There are no hard and fast rules.

4. Move. Move as fast as possible with the captor conforming to keep the pressure off their joints. Soldiers #3 & 4 are providing cover for all phases of the operation.

The Nerve Points

Figure 1 illustrates the areas of the human body where the nervous system crosses the bones. Either strikes or direct pressure to these point will press the nerves against the bone. These attacks can cause a few seconds of either mental or physical shock which gives you time to apply the restraint. Both forms of Snatch Squad utilise these Nerve Points. The nerve points numbered from 1-8 are located on both sides of the body. This gives a total of 16 points to attack.

Figure 1

Point 1 - The Superscapular Nerve. This located centrally on the ridge of muscle that runs from the base of the neck below the ear lobe to the shoulder. Hit downwards with the hammer fist, chop or baton edge. Avoid striking to the front of this ridge because you run the risk of breaking the collar bone.

Point 2 - The Femoral Nerve This is located in front of the hip joint where the stomach and leg create a fold. Hit straight in to collapse the leg or jackknife the upper body forward. Hit with a side kick, punch, baton butt or point. Point 3 - The Sciatic and Tibial Nerves These are located centrally, behind the thigh bone, extending from the fold of the back side to the knee fold. Hit in using toe or side kicks, baton point or butt.

Point 4 - The Posterior Tibial Nerve This is located centrally on the calf muscles of both legs. Hit in using toe kicks, side kicks, thumb pressure, baton point or butt.

Point 5 - The Common Peroneal Nerve This is located on the outside of the thigh, four finger widths above the knee cap. Hit in using side kicks, knee kicks, roundhouse shin kicks or the baton edge. Striking too low, on the side of the knee cap, will break the leg.

Point 6 - The Saphenous Nerve This is located to the soft inner side of the thigh, four finger widths above the knee cap. Hit in at an angle to impact the nerve against the thigh bone. Use toe kicks, knees, baton point or butt. Point 7 - The Median Nerve, Ulnar Nerve and Radius Nerve This cluster of nerves are most vulnerable two finger widths above the elbow joint. They are on the soft side of the upper arm which lies next to the ribs. Hit this area with a reverse knife hand, punch or baton edge to impact the nerves agains the bone of the upper arm and collapse the arm into the hammer lock position.

Point 8 - The Supercavicular Nerve This is located behind the ridge of neck muscle just below the ear lobes. It can be attacked with palm heel, baton edge or chops to this ridge of muscle..

The human body will react in specific ways to nerve point attacks, you can confirm this with hands on training. For example, in order to apply a straight arm bar, get the opponent to jack knife forward with both arms outstretched by punching to the hip joint area (Point 2).

Arrest and Restraint Techniques

The following techniques involve the use of minimum force to achieve your objectives. If you are well trained in these techniques you will find that the physiological damage caused is usually temporary with little or no long term damage. The locking techniques, if carried to their conclusion, will result in either breaks or dislocations. In arrest and restraint the joint locks are used only as a pain compliance tool. You want to achieve physical control of the resisting individual, even when the resistance is passive.

All the strikes and joint locks applied during operations are not done to either satisfy your need for revenge or punish the individual. The target will be easier to handle over long distances if you can employ pain compliance techniques. The techniques are used with the express purpose of;

• Controlling the individual quickly.

• Keeping the individual conscious.

• Keeping the individual on their feet.

• Reducing long term injury

Sometimes it will be necessary to take an opponent to the ground in order to restrain them. Make sure that you take the opponent down on their face so that you or your team will not be kicked and punched by the prone opponent. The face down restraint offers you more protection but it is inherently dangerous for an opponent who may be either psychologically or physiologically challenged or under the influence of drugs. It is your objective to keep the opponent alive. You must be conversant with the relevant first aid procedures for dealing with the adverse effects of face down restraints. Jacket Grabs

If the opponent is wearing a jacket, chop Point 1 and grab the collar from the back and pull it down off their shoulders. This will pin their arms at the elbows.

If the opponent is wearing a jacket, chop Point 1 and then grab the bottom of the jacket from the rear and pull it, along with the collar, over the opponents head. This again will pin the opponents' arms at the elbow.

From the rear, grab the shoulder pads of the jacket, lift up and pull the opponent off balance to the rear. The opponent can be moved short distances in this manner.

Belt Lifts

From the rear, lift the opponent up by the belt line with one hand. With the other hand press forward with your thumb on the hollow at the base of the skull. As an alternative, punch your fist through the targets legs and grasp the front of their pants. Press on the back of the skull to move them forward.

If the target is sitting down, apply thumb pressure in a forward direction to the top of the jaw in front of the ear lobe. When the target tries to remove your hands, apply a wrist lock. The thumb pressure is pressing the nerve against the jaw bone to cause the distraction. Straight Arm Bar

For the straight arm bar to work efficiently, two points must be met. First, the anchor for the hold is approximately three fingers above the elbow joint on the tricep muscle (Fig 2a). Second, the wrist must be torqued so that the palm is facing up as in figure 2b. The illustration in figure 2c shows the palm in the incorrect position, the palm must face up in order to achieve full control.

The Minor Goose Neck

(Figs 3a & b) This simple wrist lock is achieved by first grabbing the opponents right arm at the wrist with your right hand. The main purpose of this initial grab is to collapse the opponents wrist forward into the goose neck position. Then move into the opponents right side, swivelling on the toes to draw you in close to the opponent, transferring your left arm below their right arm. At this stage place your left palm on the back of the captured hand. The best position is near or on the knuckles so that maximum pressure is exerted on the captured wrist. The opponents fingers must be pointing down.

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