Third Generation Yin Fu Stylists in Bejing Yang Kun Left and Gao Zi Ying Right

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Yang Kun was a student of Yin Fu's disciple Zhang Shou Hong. Now 81 years old, Yang began his Ba Gua

Zhang training at the age of 14. His teacher was hired, along with Gao Zi Ying's father (see below) as an employee in Yin Fu's bodyguard business. Yin would sometimes hire strong men to work as bodyguards and residence guards and train them in Ba Gua Zhang after they began working for him. Yang Kun's teacher stayed with Yin for nine years studying Ba Gua and working as a bodyguard. Like most of Yin's students, Zhang Shou Hong did not teach many people. Yang states that his teacher only had three students.

Yang Kun began his Ba Gua training with the circle walk practice while holding static upper body postures. His teacher emphasized practicing at all three levels, or "basins" to gain a strong foundation. His teacher taught eight palm changes at a pace of one or two per year. Yang was required to study each palm change thoroughly and states that his philosphy is "learn a few simple things and do them well." He states that once one plam change is studied completely at all three levels, "that will be enough to defeat many people."

In keeping with the Yin school tradition,Yang Kun himself has not taught many students. He says that his emphasis in teaching is on Qi development and this development takes a long time. He states that today students are interested in techniques and so they get bored with the Qi development aspects which he stresses, consequently he does not keep many students.

Gao Zi Ying who is now 85 years old, studied Ba Gua Zhang with his father Gao Wen Cheng (A XjK).

Gao Wen Cheng studied his Ba Gua with both Yin Fu and Cheng Ting Hua. Gao Wen Cheng began his Ba Gua training with Yin Fu when he was hired by Yin to work as a bodyguard. Although Gao Zi Ying is retired from teaching Ba Gua, his three sons, Gao Ji Wen MX), Gao Ji Wu (S) MA), and Gao Ji You (ift -i carry on the family system. Gao is known in Beijing for his Ba Gua Zhang two-man fighting sets. A popular sports magazine in China ran a long series of articles in which Gao detailed his two-man Ba Gua Zhang fighting system. In addition to the two-man fighting sets, Gao's father taught him eight of the Lohan forms which were part of Yin's Ba Gua Zhang as well as a number of effective stepping methods. Gao states that Yin Fu was very fond of utilizing the "crane" step whereby the practitioner would walk lifting the foot to knee level before sliding it out to advance.

Ma Gui

Yin Fu's top Ba Gua Zhang student was Ma Gui. Ma Gui (1853-1940), who was also known as Ma Shi Qing was from Lan Shui County in Hebei Province. Ma was thin and weak when he was young and did not like to talk very much. His family was in the woodworking business and thus he was known as "Wood" Ma. It is also said that he earned this nickname because he was short and built like a wooden tablet. Ma Gui began studying Ba Gua Zhang from Yin when he was 18 years old. Prior to his study of Ba Gua, Ma was skilled in Tian Gang Quan

Although Ma is listed as Yin Fu's student, he also had the opportunity to study a bit with Dong Hai Chuan and thus Ma's name is listed on Dong's original gravestone. One year there was a new year's celebration and many students and grandstudents came to pay there respects to Dong. Ma Gui was a small, "strange looking" man. When Dong saw Ma he said, "You look strange. Who are you and what do you do." Ma told Dong who he was and that he liked to paint crab shells and he sold them as ornaments. Tung said, "I'm going to teach you the crab palm." He taught Ma this one palm and it became his trademark. Ma Gui was known for attacking an opponent by striking with the back of his wrist and he was also highly skilled at dian xue (fi - point striking). It is said that Dong Hai Chuan lived in Ma Gui's home for a short period of time after he left the palace of Prince Su.

Later Ma worked as a guard at Prince Su's palace and was hired to guard the presidential residence after the establishment of the Republic. In 1919 Ma was hired to teach martial arts to the military and in 1928 he was hired as a senior advisor to the Hebei martial arts academy.

Although Ma Gui was highly skilled, he seldom taught his students thoroughly. Some say that Ma Gui was a very conservative teacher while others say he did not teach deeply because none of his students met his high requirements. Although a number of students got bits and pieces from Ma Gui, it is said that only a few, if any at all, got Ma's complete art.

Ma Gui devoted his life to martial arts and thus was not very successful in business. In his later years he lost all of his property and lived a miserable life traveling among his friends and relatives for meals. Although his martial arts skill was high, he died poor and hungry.

Li Yong Qing

Li Yong Qing owned the Wan Tong Jewelry Store in Beijing and thus people called him "Wan Tong" Li. Li was known for his very strong arms and so people also called him "Iron Arm" Li. On one occasion when practicing Pan Shou with Yin Fu, Li Yong Qing pressed Yin's wrist with strength. When Yin turned his palm over suddenly, Li was thrown onto the ground three meters away. Yin was well known for his ability to "stick" to an opponent's force, "borrow" that force, and easily redirect the opponent. Li Yong Qing also eventually developed this skill to a high level. When

Yin Fu was hired by the government to work as a "tax officer," Li Yong Qing worked with him.

Once when Li Yong Qing went to a temple fair, he witnessed a hoodlum taking liberties with a young woman. When he tried to stop the attack, the hoodlum wouldn't listen and turned on Li to fight. Li blocked the assailant's attack, moved in close and caught him with an elbow to the head. The hoodlum died as a result of the strike. Li escaped going to prison only after an influential eunuch who was close to Yin Fu intervened.

Although Li Yong Qing was known to those close to the Yin family of Ba Gua Zhang in Beijing, and known to have been one of Yin Fu's top three disciples, he did not teach many students and thus he is not well known outside of the Yin family of practitioners.

Men Bao Zhen

Men Bao Zhen (see photo on page 6), who was also known as Men Pin San was born in 1873 into a upper class Manchurian family in Beijing, China. When he was young, he did not like to study books, he enjoyed physical activities and being outdoors. The first martial art Men Bao Zhen studied was tan tui (

M - springing legs). His teacher was a large man, over six feet tall, and very strong.

Instead of forcing Men to become a scholar, his parents allowed him to take the military exams. Those who passed the military exams were accepted into the military officer training program. Unfortunately, during the intense horse riding exam, Men injured his foot. Because of his injury he was unable to obtain an overall high score in the exams, however he placed second in the martial arts portion of the test.

Men studied his tan tui very hard for several years, however, when he got into his first street fight, he lost. After he lost his first real fight, Men decided to try and find a new teacher. He had an acquaintance named Zhang who was an opera expert. Zhang, who was skilled at hook weapons, knew many of the martial artists in Beijing and introduced Men to Yin Fu. When Yin Fu first met Men he looked at the young man and said, "It is a pity for a man of your build and potential to practice something like tan tui." Although Men was in search of a new teacher, he did not like Yin's comment and thought that Yin was very arrogant. Yin was very thin and old and Men did not believe that such a man could match a bigger, stronger man. Men asked Yin if he could test Yin's skill. As soon as the words left his mouth, Yin hit Men with a chopping action and knocked him on the ground. Men was so stunned he could not get up for several minutes. When he met Yin he was about 20 years old (1893).

Like most students, when Men Bao Zhen first started with Yin he studied Lohan Shaolin. He started practice every morning at 3:00 and practiced until 6:00. He practiced "without regard for the heat of summer or the cold of winter." After practice he stayed at Yin Fu's home and performed chores for Yin. Since Men's family was wealthy, he did not need to worry about making money, he only practiced martial arts and helped Yin around the house. He stayed and studied with Yin for nearly 20 years. Eleven of those years he lived in Yin's home. Yin Fu liked Men because he was hard working and had a kind and loyal nature. Men was honest and generous and so Yin taught him deeply.

While it is said that Ma Gui and Li Yong Qing had better technical skill than Men, Men was the "inner door" student who inherited Yin's complete system. He was a hard worker and was not only interested in learning how to defeat others with martial arts, but was also interested in obtaining the entire Ba Gua Zhang system to include the martial arts, healing arts, health building arts, and related philosophy. Men was especially good at qin na and Ba Gua interlocking leg skills and became a talented Chinese medical doctor.

Men Bao Zhen was very open and generous, he never accepted tuition for any of his instruction. He was a big man with seemingly limitless strength. Because of his size people called him "big foot" Men. His legs, arms, and body, were long, thick, and solid and his fists were huge. In all martial contests, Men made sure he did not hurt his opponent badly. He would usually knock them to the ground or grab them on a nerve point so that they could not resist.

On one occasion during the "Fifth day of the Fifth month" festival a monk who had come from the western mountains put on a demonstration of his gong fu. The monk had a bag full of iron rods which were about 2 feet long. The monk took the rods out and, one at a time,

Dong Hai Chuan's student Fan Zhi Yong specialized in Dong's Buddhist Qi Gong methods beat his body with the rods, breaking 12 rods on his body. Men observed the monk's demonstration and then said, "Why do you want to learn this skill? This skill only trains you to learn how to get beat by others!" The monk became angry at Men's remark and wanted to test Men's skill. When the monk attacked, Men hit him with one palm strike and knocked him out. When the monk woke up he could not stand for several minutes. Once he regained his senses the monk started to leave. Men said, "Take those iron rods with you, we have no use for them here." The monk told Men, "After two years I will return and meet you again." The monk never came back.

In the 1930's Men served as the advisor to the Hebei Martial Arts Academy. He died in 1958 at the age of 87. His students of note were Yu Huan {f Sheng Qi Hui ( Mt Du Han Sheng and Xie Pei Qi ^ -

see article on page 15).

Ju Qing Yuan fiklL)

Ju Qing Yuan lived and taught Yin Fu Ba Gua Zhang in Tianjin. He was especially good at the leg skills. Li Zi Ming (^"f was living in Tianjin during the mid-1920's and was introduced to Ju Qing Yuan by his first teacher Liang Zhen Pu (-IM^M) and Li had the opportunity to study with Ju for several years. Li said that on one occasion he was practicing Ba Gua double-broadsword and Ju asked him to attack. Ju had no weapon, but still Li could not touch him with the swords. One of Ju's students, Xian Da Wen had a good command of Ju's Ba Gua Zhang and taught in Beijing until he died in 1984 at over 90 years of age.

He Jin Kui, also known as He Yun Xuan was the son-in-law of Yin Fu. When He Jin Kui was a child, he was adopted by a eunuch, He De Shou He

De Shou was the manager of the Chu Xiu Palace and the imperial kitchen in the Forbidden City. He was skilled in the imperial martial arts known as the "secret skills of the imperial court." He Jin Kui started his martial arts training with his eunuch father. His father taught him the "secret skills of the imperial court" which included bare-hand skills as well as broadsword, spear, staff, and straight sword. He Jin Kui started his Ba Gua Zhang training with Cheng Ting Hua. Later he took Yin Fu as his teacher after marrying Yin Fu's daughter.

When Yin Fu died, He Jin Kui took over Yin's job of teaching martial arts in the imperial palace. He Jin Kui and Yin Fu's third son Yin Cheng Zhang were known for their special skill with Ba Gua Zhang weapons. He Jin Kui had two sons who practiced his art, his first son He Zhong Qi (H & and his third son He Zhong Xiang ( i^T & ^r). He Zhong Qi was the director of the "secret skills of the imperial court" department of the Hebei Martial Arts Academy during the 1930's.

LuShu Kui

He Jin Kui's top student was Lu Shu Kui, also known as Lu Kong Yin (Jt life). Lu Shu Kui was almost the same age as his teacher and was frequently taught by Yin Fu directly. In 1930 Lu Shu Kui became the managing

Gao Ziying

Practitioners from the Cheng school and the Yin school of Ba Gua Zhang meet in Beijing (ealry 1980's). The Cheng school representatives are Liu Xing Han (far left), Wang Wen Kui (second from left with cane), and Wang Rong Tang (far right). The Yin school is represented by Yang Kun (second row left) and

Gao Zi Ying (second from right in front row).

director of the Hebei Provincial Martial Arts Academy. A number of Yin Fu style Ba Gua Zhang instructors, including Ma Gui, Men Bao Zhen, and Yin Yu Zhang taught at the school. Lu Shu Kui was from a wealthy family and he paid for the third and fourth stone steles erected at Dong Hai Chuan's tomb in 1930. These stones were erected by the Hebei Guo Shu Guan and list the advisors, teachers, and students of the school on the back of the stones. On the front of one of the stones the names of Yin's students Yin Yu Zhang, Men Bao Zhen, He Jin Kui, Ma Gui, and Lu Shu Kui are listed as the individuals responsible for erecting the stones.

Lu Shu Kui also taught in Beijing's Bei Hai Park and owned a restaurant in this area of Beijing. Later in his life he was invited to teach at the Provincial martial arts school in Gan Su. He remained in Gan Su until his death. His two top students in Beijing were Liu Zhan Bin (f'J £ H) and Zhang Hong Ji who died in

1984 and 1985 respectively. He had a son, Lu Jin Hai who also studied Ba Gua. Yin Fu practitioners familiar with Lu Shu Kui and his students list Park Bok Nam's instructor, Lu Shui Tian as a student of Lu Shu Kui and also say that he was a family relation.

Gong Bao Tian was from Qing Shan, Mou Ping County, Shandong Province. He came to Beijing in his childhood and worked as a waiter in a restaurant while studying Ba Gua Zhang with Yin Fu. He met Yin through his older brother Gong Bao Shan [i* ff who was studying with Yin. Gong Bao Tian's older brother died of cholera when he was young. Later Gong went back to Shandong to teach and became quite famous there. Gong Bao Tian's students included Sun Ru Wen 07k X), Sun Fu Ying Yu Shi You (f^t

), Wang Dao Cheng (-£*£)&), Gong Bao Zhai [tt #), and Liu Yun Jiao (#J t^*). He had a total of 19 formal disciples of which Liu Yun Jiao was the last. Gong Bao Zhai and Liu Yun Jiao taught Gong Bao Tian's Ba Gua in Taiwan. A future issue of the Pa Kua Chang Journal will feature the Ba Gua Zhang of Gong Bao Tian.

Cao Zhong Sheng C# If

Cao Zhong Sheng (see photo on page 7) was from Cao Jia Village, Wu Cheng County in Shandong Province. He was an apprentice in a jade store when he first came to Beijing at the age of 15. At that time he was

Guo Shu Guan

Men Bao Zhen's student Xie Pei Qi practices with the large Ba Gua straight sword weak and in ill health. To boost his strength he began studying martial arts with Fu Wen Yuan (tr^lTtj), who also worked in the same store. Fu was a student of Ma Gui and often went to Yin Fu's home to practice. When he went to see Yin, he often took Cao with him. Cao studied Ba Gua with both Ma Gui and Yin Fu.

Later Cao went back to his hometown in Shandong and received Chi Shi Xin (¿SL-Jrie) and Cui Yun Qing as students. In 1934, Cao led his students to participate in a martial arts fighting competition in Shandong and his student won the gold medal. In 1936, at the invitation of Tang Yu Lin the governor of

Chahaier Province under the rule of the Guomindang Cao went back to Beijing to teach Tang Yu Lin and his son. While in Beijing he also accepted Zhang

Ding Chen Zhang Jin Chen and

Zhang Shu Tang (ikii't) as students.

In 1938, Cao went to Tianjin with Tang Yu Lin. In Tianjin Cao received another student, Lu Jing Gui ( A'&it). In 1942, Lu Jing Gui wrote a book titled Cao Style Ba Gua Zhang according to the oral transmission of Cao Zhang Sheng.

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