Pa Kua Chang practitioner and martial arts historian Kang KoWu A Yunnan native Kang now lives in Beijing

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that Tung might have learned from. 4) Tung Hai-Ch'uan was the founder of Pa Kua Chang. The individuals who subscribe to this theory believe that Tung spent his youth learning other martial arts and invented Pa Kua Chang based on his experience combined with a circle walking meditation practice he learned from a Taoist.

In the first part of this article, we examined the first two theories listed above and concluded that these two theories had no basis in fact. The primary source of this information was taken from the work of Professor K'ang Ko-Wu of Beijing. While working on his master's degree in Chinese martial arts history in 1980-81, Professor K'ang wrote his thesis on the "Origins of Pa Kua Chang." When I visited with K'ang last year in Beijing (November 91), he gave me a copy of his findings and the translation of his report forms the foundation of this article.

Professor K'ang's research was extensive and involved close examination of over 650 documents from the Ch'ing Palace history books and over 230 papers written on martial arts. He also examined the situations of 413 teachers in 24 provinces and cities, personally investigating in 16 cities and counties and 9 provinces. K'ang interviewed over 256 people resulting in over 274 documents. Many of the people he interviewed were elderly boxers of the older generation who spoke openly about their martial arts. While conducting his research, K'ang was a motivating force in the effort to restore Tung Hai-Ch'uan's tomb and participated with 371 others in the unearthing and moving of the tomb.

After several meetings with Professor K'ang, I must say, I have been convinced that his conclusion concerning Pa Kua Chang's origin is valid.

In the first part of this article I reported that, although the research conducted by K'ang Ko-Wu was fairly thorough, I thought there were some conclusions he made in his final analysis that I would not have been so quick to make. In his summary, K'ang concluded that it was Tung Hai-Ch'uan alone who originated Pa Kua Chang (theory 4 above). I thought his reasons for discounting theory three above were weak in terms of western scholarly logic and stated this concern in the first part of this article. In October 92, I had the opportunity to meet with Professor K'ang in Beijing and discuss some of the points I thought were missing from his thesis. During this meeting he provided me with additional information that was not printed in his thesis, particularly pertaining to the Pa Kua Chang of Kao I-Sheng, and answered other questions I had concerning his thesis work and the life of Tung Hai-Ch'uan. After several meetings with

Yin Fu's Picture of Tung Hai-Ch'uan

On the cover of our last issue we ran a picture of Tung Hai-Ch'uan and reported that this was the only known likeness of Tung. Naturally, I was very surprised when I walked in to Hsieh P'ei-Chi's home in Beijing this past October and saw the picture shown at left. Hsieh said that this picture belonged to Yin Fu and Yin had given it to his student Men Pao-Chun. Men had in turn given it to his student Hsieh, thus Hsieh has the original which was owned by Yin Fu.

Although Tung's posture is the same, this picture is definitely a better likeness than the other picture drawn by Tung's student Ch'uan K'ai-T'ing. Hsieh says that his picture was drawn by a different artist and is not a copy of the other.

Another interesting fact which Hsieh revealed is that Tung always sat with one or both feet turned to the side as his right foot is shown in this picture. Hsieh said that Tung did this to help open up the Yang meridians which run up the outside of the foot and leg. Hsieh's teacher had even taught him a ch'i kung method where the practitioner will walk on the outsides of the feet to stimulate these meridians.

Professor K'ang, I must say, I have been convinced that his conclusion concerning Pa Kua Chang's origin is valid. In this, the second part of this article we will explore the two theory three above which states that Tung learned from the Taoist Pi Ch'eng-Hsia. In the next issue of the Journal, we will discuss the fourth theory and draw conclusions accordingly.

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Martial Arts An Introduction

Martial Arts An Introduction

Anytime an individual decides to learn how to protect themselves, learn self defense, or become a better person, one thing comes to mind - Martial Arts. Martial Arts are now being practiced all over the world.

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