Pi Cheng Hsia and Chou Hua Mountain Pa Kua Chang

After Tung Hai-Ch'uan's death in 1889, his successors made a point of saying that Tung had learned his art from a Taoist in the "mountain fastness" while traveling throughout the country studying martial arts. Many stories were told about Tung learning from Immortals, Taoist sages, or Buddhists in ancient temples located on clouded mountain peaks. Although it is difficult to conclude from these stories where these mystical mountains might have been located, Yin Fu and others stated that the mountains where Tung learned his art were in An Hui Province (Wen An county stele at Tung's gravesite, 1904). In 1930, Ma Kuei and a group of other practitioners placed two additional steles at Tung's grave and recorded that the location in An Hui where Tung received his instruction was on Chou Hua (Nine Flower) Maintain.

While fantastic stories about immortals on clouded mountain tops are difficult to believe and originate primarily from the creative minds of pulp novelists and storytellers, Nine Flower Maintain (Chou Hua Shan) is a real place. So the question arises - If Tung Hai-Ch'uan did learn his art from another, is this the place where Tung's training took place?

On December 31, 1939, Chiang Jung-Chiao wrote an article entitled "Investigating T'ai Chi and Pa Kua" which originally appeared in Kuo Shu Monthly.* In this article, there is a section written about the lineage of Pa Kua and it states that Tung learned his art on Nine Flower Mountain. This account of Tung's lineage reports that the elder of this system was the Taoist Tung Hsuan, who's original name was Chang Chuen-Yi and was also known as Chang San-Feng. Chang San-Feng's boxing and sword fighting art had been transmitted to Chang Hsiung-Hsi who taught what he referred to as Nei Chia Ch'uan (Internal Family Boxing) in the Ming Dynasty. The article reported that this art was handed down from Chang Sung-Hsi to Chao Tai-Ping to Yan Hsi-Kuai to Lu Shih-Niang and then to Li Ta-Nien.

Li Ta-Nien was said to have taught Chen Yin-Chang of An Hui Province who was a recluse living on Nine Flower Mountain - his Taoist name was Tan Yun-Yu. Chen Yin-Chang was said to have taught the Taoist Ye-He (Wild Crane), who was also known as Pi Yueh-Hsia or Pi Yun-Hsia. The "Wild Crane" Taoist was a white haired old gentleman of unknown origin. His Taoist name

* In the late 1920's and early 1930's Chiang Jung-Ch'iao held the position as martial arts researcher and editor at the Central Martial Arts Academy in Nanjing.

Gentleman 1920
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