The techniques of Krav Maga are based on transference of energy and explosive action. The strikes are powerful and designed for maximum effect to specific target areas. Students are trained to be fully aware of their surroundings and the potential for violence. As with most martial styles, the beginning student practices blocks, punches, kicks and specific strikes, along with defensive moves for grabs and attacks. As the learning progresses, the student moves to more sophisticated techniques against longer-range situations and multiple directions. Some holds are taught so to subdue an opponent. Face-to-face combat begins with this level, to accustom the student to the "feel" of an attack.
Further training teaches additional holds, as well as releases from the holds. Specific defenses, immobilization techniques, and throws are also added to the curriculum. As the student gains skill, weapons training begins using knife, staff, club and nunchaku. As the black belt level is reached, training with rifles having fixed bayonets is taught, based on the military roots of the system.
The lethal nature of the Krav Maga system simulates real life situations. It teaches people how to save lives and to cope with common street violence. To be effective in the streets, Krav Maga cannot include rules and limitations. Therefore, there are no sport competitions for Krav Maga because it is designed to remain a realistic fighting system.
Students are instructed in state-of-the-art defensive principles that apply to a variety of threatening attacks that occur during commonly documented street crimes. Students train from a position of disadvantage in real time and real speed.
Defensive maneuvers are combined with simultaneous counterattacks until all potential danger is eliminated. Unique training methods are employed to simulate violent street encounters. This is necessary to place students under extreme stress while performing Krav Maga techniques. Students learn to go from a passive to an aggressive state quickly. Krav Maga also teaches students to function with their attention divided; while fatigued; and when they are faced with a multitude of spontaneous attack scenarios.
- Defense against punches and kicks
- Releases from bear hugs and chokes
- Defense against knifes and clubs, guns etc.
- Defense against multiple attackers
- Various types of arm blows and kicks
- Sparring under pressure and controlled fighting
For the Military and Law Enforcement Professional training also includes:
- Versatile use of a weapons, including explosives
- Taking control of individuals without maiming
- Dealing with terrorist/hostage situations.
BELT AND LEVEL SYSTEM iN KRAV MACA
There are two systems to descripe the level of student. First is Judo based belt system, where all students begin as white belts and can move up to yellow, orange, green, blue, brown, and then black belt.
Yellow-Brown Belt: Basic Self-Defense
1st-5th Dan Black Belt: Advanced material including military applications and teaching
6th Dan Black Belt & Up: Recognition of services to the style of Krav Maga
Another system is levels,there are practioner, graduate, expert and master levels. Each of the P, G E levels have 5 grades and the Master have 3 (this system is used f.ex Scandinavian countries). After the first 8-12 weeks practise, students should be ready to test for their yellow belts or 1st practitioner level.
Practitioner 1 & 2 equals Yellow belt. Practitioner 3 & 4 equals Orange belt.. Practitioner 5 & Graduate 1 equals Green belt. Graduate 2 & 3 equals Blue belt. Graduate 4 & 5 Brown belt Expert 1 -3 equals Black belt 1-3 dan Expert 4 -5 equals Black belt 4-5 dan Master 1 - 3
Present day the IKMF has local associations and affiliations in Israel, the United States, France, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Great Britain, Brazil, Thailand and throughout the world. Krav Maga is used nowadays by the IDF including the special forces units and the Israeli police and security branches, and by many other elite units in North America, South America, Europe, and around the world. The Krav Maga has also become, as Imi wanted it to be, a major source of civilian self defense instruction.
ADDITIONAL CHAPTER: STATE OF ISRAEL'S VIVID HISTORY
Because creation of Krav Maga is linked, at least some level, to the development of the state of Israel's military forces, it's also usefull to get deeper look what was happening in Israel at those first years when State of Israel and Israels defence forces where formed.
The map of Israel in 1948
Starting from The War of Independence (1947-49)
The war was fought a long the entire, long border of the country: against Lebanon and Syria in the north, Iraq and Transjordan - in the east, Egypt, assisted by Sudan - in the south and Palestinians and volunteers from Arab countries in the interior of the country.
It was the most costly war of Israel's history, more than 6,000 Jewish fighters and civilians died.
At the war's end in 1949, the state of Israel was confronted with a number of problems: hundreds of thousands of new immigrants and a festering refugee problem on its borders and maintaining a defense against a hostile and numerically superior Arabs. Faced with such problems, government sought to ensure a fluid transition from existing prestate institutions to the new state apparatus. It announced the formation of a Provisional Council of State.A key element was the integration of Israel's independent military forces into a unified military structure. On May 28, 1948, Ben-Gurion 's provisional government created the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) Zvah Haganah Le Yisrael, and the same time maintenance of other armed forces were prohibited.
When this proclamation was challenged by the Irgun, a ship carrying arms, into Tel Aviv harbor. Ben-Gurion ordered Haganah troops to fire on the ship, which was set a flame on the beach in Tel Aviv. By January 1949, Ben-Gurion had also dissolved the Palmach, the strike force of the Haganah.
In July 1950, the Law of Return was assigned: "Every Jew has the right to come to this country as an olah (new immigrant)."
Between May 1948 and December 31, 1951, approximately 684,000 Jewish immigrants entered the new state, thus providing a Jewish majority in the region for the first time in the modern era. The largest single group of immigrants consisted of Jews from Eastern Europe; more than 300,000 people came from refugee and displaced persons camps.
After independence the areas in which 90 percent of the Arabs lived, were placed under military government. The government created three areas to be ruled by the Ministry of Defense. The first was the Northern Area, Galilee Area, The second was the so called Little Triangle, located between the villages of Et Tira and Et Taiyiba near the Jordan border (Transjordan). The third area included much of the Negev Desert.
In April 1950 King Abdullah of Transjordan annexed the West Bank and East Jerusalem, thus creating the united Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Ben-Gurion thought this would mean an end to independent claims on Israeli territory and material claims on confiscated Arab territory. Abdullah, was assassinated in July 1951. And Israel was boycotted by all its Arab neighbors.
Surrounded by enemies and having to integrate thousands of immigrants into the new state, government attempted to make the IDF the new unifying symbol of the fledgling state. Israel needed a unity of purpose, which could be provided by a strong army that would defend the country against its enemies and help assimilate its culturally diverse immigrants.
In 1953 Israel's defense Minister Pinchas Lavon, had authorized intelligence chief Benjamin Gibly to launch spying in Cairo and Alexandria in an attempt to embarrass Egyptian president Gamal Abdul Nasser. Operation failed and the Egyptians caught and executed the spies.
In February 1955, Ben-Gurion returned to the Ministry of Defense and was able to promote his hard-line defense policy. This resulted in a number of raids against the Egyptians in response to attacks on Israeli settlements originating from Egyptian-held territory. Biggest concern was the rising power of Nasser had signed an agreement to buy arms from the Soviet Union and Czechoslovakia. But President Eisenhower refused to supply Israel with weapons.
Because Egypt threatened Western interests in the Suez Canal, there where secret talks with Britain and France about the possibility of Israel striking at the Sinai Peninsula, while Britain and France moved in on the Suez Canal, to protect Western shipping from combat.
In 1955 the IDF routed the Egyptian army at Gaza and on 1956, the French and British took over the Suez Canal area. After intense pressure from the Eisenhower administration, the European powers accepted to a cease-fire. And in March 1957, Israeli troops were forced to withdraw. Although Israel was forced to withdraw, the raids from Gaza ceased, UN peacekeeping forces separated Egypt and Israel, cooperation with France led to more arms sales to Israel, and the army's performance had strengtened the position of the IDF.
FIELD MANUAL HEADQUARTERS
No. 21-150 DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
Washington, DC, 30 September 1992
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