Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts Copyright 2001

Forbidden Kill Strikes

How to Teach Yourself Martial Arts

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Notice: This material remains the property of the Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts. It is freely distributed to practitioners of medieval martial arts and offers no restrictions to the copying and re-distribution ofthe material in an un-altered form, however, this material is not for re-sale. AEMMA will graciously accept financial gifts to support AEMMA's further development in the resurrection and reconstruction of medieval martial arts and future publications. Re-production of this material for the purpose of commercial publication without permission from the Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts is a breach of copyright and legal action will follow.

Table of Contents

FORWARD 10

TRAINING OVERVIEW 11

Training Objectives: 11

Basic Principles 12

Safety Precautions 13

TRAINING PROGRAM STRUCTURE 14

1.0 EXercise Forms 14

2.0 Other Weapons Training 15

3.0 Deployment of Strikes and Guards 15

4.0 Folgen (Sword Drills) 15

5.0 Reihenfolgen (Sword Sequences) 16

6.0 Fechten (Fighting Engagements) 16

RANKING AND SKILL COMPETENCY 17

Ranks and their Attributes 18

Recruit

Attributes of a Recruit 18

Responsibilities of a Recruit 18

Skill Development and Training Specifications for Recruit 19

Theoretical: 19

Martial: 19

Recruit Training Points 19

EBEM

Attributes of Scholler 20

Responsibilities of a Scholler 20

Requirements to obtain Scholler Designation 20

Skill Development and Training Specifications for Scholler 21

Theoretical: 21

Martial: 21

Scholler Training Points 21

Attributes of Free Scholler 22

Responsibilities of a Free Scholler 22

Requirements to obtain Free Scholler Designation 23

Skill Development and Training Specifications for Free Scholler 23

Theoretical: 23

Martial: 23

Free Scholler Training Points 23

Attributes of a Provost 24

Responsibilities of Provost 24

Requirements to obtain Provost Designation 25

Maestro

Criteria of the Candidate for the rank of Maestro 26

OVERVIEW OF HISTORICAL MANUSCRIPTS REFERENCED 27

Fiore dei Liberi, 1410 27

"Unknown", c1470 28

Hans Talhoffer 1467 28

Camillo Agrippa, 1568 30

Giacomo di Grassi, 1594 30

Vincentio Saviolo, 1595 30

George Silver, 1599 31

Jakob Sutor, 1612 31

Mess. H. Angelo and Son, 1790 32

Alfred Hutton, 1889 32

Alfred Hutton, 1892 32

BRIEF HISTORY OF ARMOUR 33

11th Century Arms and Armour (to approximately 1066 AD) 33

12th Century Arms and Armour (to approximately 1180 AD) 34

13th Century Arms and Armour (to approximately 1275 ad) 35

14th Century Arms and Armour (to approximately 1385 ad) 36

15th Century Arms and Armour (to approximately 1499 AD) 37

ARMOUR NOMENCLATURE 38

ANATOMY OF THE SWORD 40

Physics of the Sword 41

Center of Percussion 41

Balance Point from Guard 41

THE GRIP FOR THE LONGSWORD 41

THEORY AND HISTORY 43

The Four True Times 45

The Four False Times 45

The Four Grounds 45

The Four Governors 45

Footwork 46

Tactical Basics 47

1.0 GRAPPLING (ABRAZARE ) TECHNIQUES 49

Introduction 49

1.1 general Grappling Fundamentals 49

1.1.3 Back Hold 50

1.1.4 Belt Hold 51

1.1.5 Grappling Drills 51

Level #1 51

Level #2 52

Level #3 52

1.1.6 Fundamental Throws 52

Hip/Thigh Throw (L/R) 52

Under-arm Gravity Throw (L/R) 53

1.2 Abrazare Techniques 54

1.2.1 Four Guards (quattro posta) 54

1.2.2 Abrazare - Master #1 (wrestling techniques) 56

1.2.3 Abrazare - Master #2 (counter techniques) 57

1.2.4 Abrazare - Master #3 (more counter techniques) 60

1.3 T ransitional Training 61

2.0 DAGGER (DAGA ) TECHNIQUES 62

Introduction 62

1) dagger attack ^ ward and strike 62

2) dagger attack ^ ward and throw 62

3) dagger attack ^ ward, disarm and strike 63

3.0 LONGSWORD (SPADA LONGA ) TECHNIQUES 64

3.1 Footwork 64

George Silver, 1599 64

Giacomo Di Grassi, 1594 65

1) Basic Footwork & Stance 65

1. Proper and stable stance, foot placement 65

2. Passing (pass) step 66

3. Gathered step 66

4. Traverse (slope step) 67

2) Footwork drills 68

3) Sword Handling 68

3.2 Introduction to Strikes and Guards 69

3.3 The Guards (Posta) 70

3.3.1 High Guard 71

3.3.2 Middle Guard 72

3.3.3 Low Guard 73

Half Iron Gate (porta di ferro mezana) 74

Full Iron Gate (tutta porta di ferro) 74

Half Boar's Tooth (denti di cinghiale mezana) 75

Full Boar's Tooth (tutta denti di cinghiale) 75

3.3.4 Hanging Guard 76

Guard of the Window 77

Guard of the Woman 78

3.3.5 Long Guard 79

3.3.6 Tail Guard 80

3.3.7 Two-horned Guard 81

3.4 The Strikes (Colpi) 82

3.4.1 Downward Vertical Strike 82

Variation of the downward vertical cut 83

Alternative starting guards for the downward vertical strike 84

High Guard 84

Low Guard 84

Hanging Guard 84

Tail Guard 84

3.4.2: Oblique Downward Strike 85

Variations of the Oblique Downward Strike 86

Alternative starting guards for the oblique downward strike 86

High Guard 87

Low Guard 87

Hanging Guard 87

Tail Guard 87

3.4.3: Horizontal Strike 88

Variations of the Horizontal Strike 89

Alternative starting guards for the horizontal strike 89

High Guard 90

Low Guard 90

Hanging Guard 90

Tail Guard 90

3.4.4: Oblique Upward Strike 91

Variations of the Oblique Upward Strike 92

Alternative starting guards for the oblique upward strike 92

High Guard 93

Low Guard 93

Hanging Guard 93

Tail Guard 93

3.4.5: Upward Vertical Strike 94

4.0 SOLO TRAINING EXERCISES 95

4.1 Sword control - "the pipe" 95

4.2 Cutting exercise with sharps and pell 96

4.3 Horizontal test cutting using a pell 97

4.4 The "Moulinet" 98

4.5 Spatial Awareness Training 100

The Gauntlet 100

5.0 PAIRS -ORIENTED TRAINING - FOLGEN (DRILLS) 101

Introduction 101

5.1: Phase 1 (single strike single ward - with reset ) 102

Downward vertical strike (1) - guard of the window left/right 103

Oblique downward strike right (2) - guard of the window right 104

Horizontal strike (3) - middle guard 105

Oblique upward strike (4) — tooth of the boar 106

Oblique upward strike (6) — guard of the half iron gate 107

Horizontal strike (7) - middle guard 107

oblique downward strike (8) - guard of the window 108

Alternative Starting Guards 108

5.2: Phase 2 (double cut double guard - with reset) 110

Next Anchor Point 116

5.3: Phase 3 (reciprocal exchange offense defense) 119

IN CONCLUSION 126

Note from AEMMA 126

APPENDIX A - TRAINING OPENING AND CLOSURE 127

Formal Training Opening 127

Formal Training Closure 128

APPENDIX B - SUGGESTED AND EXAMPLE WARM-UPS EXERCISES 129

B.1 Initialization of the Practice 129

B.2 Initial Positioning and Exercise Start 129

B.3 Hand/wrist exercises 130

Exercise 1: Finger-hand flexibility - "finger whip " 130

Exercise 2: Hand-wrist flexibility - "wrist twist" 130

Exercise 3: Hand strength enhancement - "5-finger spread" 130

Exercise 4: Hand strength enhancement - "finger clap" 131

B.4 Head/neck exercises 131

Exercise 1: Head-neck flexibility - "neck stretch" 131

Exercise 2: Neck strengthening - "neck isometric" - optional 131

B.5 Upper body exercises 132

Exercise 1: Upper torso flexibility - "torso twist" 132

Exercise 2: Shoulder flexibility - "windmill" 132

Exercise 3: Shoulder/elbow flexibility - "tarzan" 133

Exercise 4: Balance and strength - "partner push" 133

B.6 Lower body exercises 134

Exercise 1: Knee/hip flexibility 134

B.7 Sword-assisted exercises 135

Exercise 1: Grip and gravity-assist wrist rotation 135

Exercise 2: Grip and anti-gravity wrist rotation 136

Exercise 3: Forearm & elbow focus 137

Exercise 4: Shoulder and grip focus 138

Exercise 5: Shoulder stamina 139

Exercise 6: Grip and shoulder exercise - "figure "8" 140

Exercise 7: Upper torso flexibility - "sword-assisted twist" 141

Exercise 8: Sword control - "the baton" (optional) 142

APPENDIX C - AUGMENTING TRAINING 143

Aeorbic Endurance 143

Weight Training 145

APPENDIX D - SCHOLLER TEST 148

Introduction 148

1.0 Knowledge Base: 148

2.0 Skills Base: 149

BIBLIOGRAPHY 150

Historical Treatises Referenced 150

Contemporary Sources Referenced 150

List of Figures

Figure 1 Eleventh Century Knight 33

Figure 2 (left) Armouring of the 12th Century 34

Figure 3 Introduction of the surcoat 34

Figure 4 Armouring of the 13 th Century 35

Figure 5 Armouring of the 14th Century 36

Figure 6 Armouring of the 15th Century 37

Figure 7 Anatomy of the sword 40

Figure 8 Strike Angles 69

Figure 9 high guard 71

Figure 10 middle guard 72

Figure 11 low guard 73

Figure 12 hanging guard 76

Figure 13 guard of the window 77

Figure 14 guard of the woman 78

Figure 15 long guard 79

Figure 16 tail guard 80

Figure 17 two-horned guard 81

Figure 18 downward vertical strike 82

Figure 19 the downward strike with "reversed footwork" 83

Figure 20 the oblique downward strike 85

Figure 21 the horizontal strike 88

Figure 22 the oblique upward strike 91

Figure 23 the upward vertical strike 94

Figure 24 sword control - horizontal strike and the "pipe" 95

Figure 25 cuting exercise with sharps and pell 96

Figure 26 introduction to side cut with steel sword 97

Figure 27 Tail Guard ==> Downward Cut 109

Figure 28 Tail Guard ==> Angled Cut from Below 109

Figure 29 the formal training opening ritual 127

Figure 30 closure of sword forms 128

Figure 31: saddle-mount leg exercise 131

Figure 32 torso twist 132

Figure 33 partner push exercise 133

Figure 34 knee/hip flexibility exercise 134

Figure 35 sword-assisted wrist rotation 135

Figure 36 sword-assisted anti-gravity wrist rotation 136

Figure 37 Forearm & elbow focus 137

Figure 38 Shoulder & grip focus 138

Figure 39 Shoulder stamina 139

Figure 40 figure "8" sword exercise 140

Figure 41 sword-assisted torso twist 141

Figure 42 sword control - the "baton" 142

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