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Photography Explained

Ken Duncan and Leo Meier are two key contributors to the designing and creation of this helpful guide book. Ken Duncan is an experienced and an expert photographer who started at a time when no one offered any such a guide to upcoming photographers. This eBook helps you on how to take pictures with a WOW factor. This helps you to get those wow shots, the author wants to make sure every person in the industry will understand your photography and would want to hire you. The authors guide you from the point of buying your digital camera to the point of taking quality photos that everyone wants to see. You will get some insights about the focus length, lenses, light and how to make light work for you and much more. This program is intended for photographers especially beginners who have not yet sharpened their skills. Though, it can work well for other photographers who want to advance their photo taking skills. The main program is available in downloadable PDF formats. This means your Device should support PDF files to be able to read it. Continue reading...

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Purpose and Policy Statement

With this issue of the Pa Kua Chang Journal (formerly the Pa Kua Chang Newsletter), we complete our second year of publication. Thanks to the support of our readers, we have been able to continue to grow steadily from our initial 12 page format to the 32 page format you now hold in your hands. Thanks to subscriber support we have almost tripled in size. With this new format, we have also increased the quality of our printing process to provide you with sharper type and clearer photographs. With the increase in size, we feel that the name Journal better fits the format and presentation, so we have decided to change the name.

The Most Devastating Israeli Fighting System

BLACK BELT (ISSN 0277-3066) is published monthly by Black Belt Communications LLC, Advertising and editorial offices at 24900 Anza Drive, Unit E, Santa Clarita, California 91355. The known office of publication is 300 Continental Blvd., Suite 650, El Segundo, CA 90245. Periodical postage paid at El Segundo, CA and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER Send address changes to Black Belt, P.O. Box 420235, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0235. SUBSCRIPTIONS Palm Coast Data, P.O. Box 421113, Palm Coast, FL 32142-0235. Customer service (800) 266-4066. Subscription rates in the United States are one year 32.00. Canada 44, Foreign 56 (US funds only). The publisher and editors will not be responsible for unsolicited material. Manuscripts and photographs must be accompanied by a stamped, self-addressed return envelope. Printed in the United States by Cadmus Mack Printing, Easton, PA. 2006 by Black Belt Communications LLC, an Active Interest Media Publication. All rights reserved....

Never Tightly Lock The Elbows Or Knees

This rule also goes for all the joints in the body. A useful analogy here is to think of water in a hose-pipe. When the pipe has a twist in it. or a light bend, the water ceases to flow smoothly, or may stop altogether, the same applies to the chi in the body. So. try to maintain a relaxed and flexible look to the limbs, without tension. 'Ibis, again, enables the blood and other vital fluids of the body to flow easily and without obstruction. You will notice that a quality of openness and space can be seen in all the photographs featured in this book Ibis is particularly important in tai chi.

Keep The Knee Above The Front Foot

Once you are familiar with the basic stances and principles, you are ready to begin learning the form itself. All the movements are clearly illustrated with photographs showing both the yin phase (the 'yielding' aspect which accompanies the in-breath) and the yang phase (the 'thrust' of the movement which accompanies the out-breath). If you pay close attention to the positions shown and read the instructions carefully, you will find it easy to follow the movements yourself. Remember - be patient. Learn each section thoroughly before going on to the next, and think in terms of months rather than weeks for learning the form all the way through.

Countersniper Operation

The sniper team evaluates the information to detect established patterns or routines. The team conducts a map reconnaissance, studies aerial photographs, or carries out ground reconnaissance to determine the movement patterns. The sniper must place himself in the position of the enemy and ask, How would I accomplish this mission

Sun Xi Kun and His Genuine Transmission of Ba Gua Quan

Zhang Zhao Dong Gua Zhang

Organizer (in 1932 he created the Virtuous Way Martial Study Society in Tianjin) and an author (his Genuine Transmission of Ba Gua Quan was published in 1934). This month, Joseph Crandall of Smiling Tiger Martial Arts, in a coordinated effort with High View Publications is releasing the first English version of Sun Xi Kun's book. Unlike Crandall's previous translations, Sun's book is presented with its original photographs in a offset print, saddle bound version (printed and bound exactly like this Journal). We combined our efforts to bring this book to the English speaking public because this is one of the best and most comprehensive early books written on Ba Gua and all serious Ba Gua Zhang practitioners can gain valuable insights in to the study of this art through a careful examination of Sun's written word and photographs. As far as the book's content, Sun was very thorough in introducing the reader to the depth of the Ba Gua art. Prior to Sun Xi Kun's book being published, there...

Sha Guo Zhengs Single Palm Change

Bagua Eight Mother Palms Basic

The Ba Gua Lian Huan Zhang form teaches the practitioner how to change the palms while circling and the movements are quite complicated and the dimensions of movement are many. We began to prepare this written material in 1975, first taking photographs of Sha Guo Zheng performing his form. We tried to make the instructions very clear and present the material in great detail. We feel that the reader can learn from the results of our ten years of work and research on this project.

Two Person Chuan Zhang Exercises

Now the forward palm begins to turn over. As it turns, the palm edge presses against the partner's arm so that his arm is pulled off of his center-line. Subsequent to this movement, in a continuous, fluid motion, grab the partner's wrist and pull the partner's arm down at a 45 degree angle to the rear. Be sure not to lift the shoulder or the elbow when pulling. Although this is a one-count technique applied smoothly and continuously, the practitioner does not simply grab the opponent's arm and pull. In proper execution of this technique the rise, drill, fall, and overturn components should all be expressed in the one-count application. This exercise is shown in the sequence of photographs on the top of the next page. In the next sequence of photographs, Luo and Tim demonstrate a variation of this drill. Here the opponent's arm is pulled from the inside. Again, be The two photographs below indicate one of any number of possible follow-up techniques to the basic piercing palm maneuver....

YC Wong demonstrates the Eight Mother Palms of Pa Kua Chang

Standing Meditation Wong

The moving postures, which are sometimes called the mother palms, or basic palms, seem to differ from teacher to teacher even among Kao's students. Y. C. Wong, who teaches the Kao I-Sheng style Pa Kua Chang in San Francisco, begins all of his students with static postures from Pa Kua Chang and I-Ch'uan. Wong believes, as do most teachers, that it is only through this kind of practice that one can develop supple, springy power, a stable stance in motion, and proper alignment. Once a student has shown some progress in static postures, Wong begins training them in the circle walking stepping and the eight mother palms. The eight palms are shown in the photographs accompanying this article (pages 28-29).

Mirror Mirror Seeing through a Glass Darkly

Vampires and yidam cast no reflection and their shadows are thinner and lighter. (No self ) Many so-called primitive societies believe reflections, like shadows, are projections of the soul and avoid gazing into water or having their photographs taken as it may endanger their spirit. American Indian shamans often practice face-dancing in a mirror to demonstrate their degree of enlightenment. St. Paul looks through a glass, darkly, and Aleister Crowley gives specific mirror-building directions to catch all the subtle nuances of the experience of reflection. There is more going on

Methods and Applications of Ba Gua Specialty Weapons

Mandrian Duck Knives

In this article I will give a brief introduction to each of these weapons and then present, in photographs, a demonstration of a short form sequence using each weapon, followed by a weapons application of that sequence, and then a bare hands application using movements of that sequence. The bare hands application sequence will demonstrate how use of the weapon in training will not only enhance fundamental Ba Gua mechanics and develop new principles of body motion, but can also help spark creativity in the employment of Ba Gua bare hands applications.

Origins of the Circle Walk Practice in Ba Gua Zhang

Josef Mengele Medical Experiments

Only did he discover that Ba Fan Quan techniques rely heavily on the use of palm striking, he also found that many of the postures and movements of Ba Fan Quan are identical to Ba Gua Zhang. Included in Kang's thesis are photographs of Ba Fan Quan practitioners' postures compared to Ba Gua Zhang postures found in Ba Gua Zhang books by third generation practitioners Guo Gu Min (fP -if , Sun Lu Tang fr), Sun Xi Kun and Huang Bo Nian ffijb He concluded that many of the Ba Gua Zhang postures and movements are identical to those found in Ba Fan Quan, Xing Men, Hong Quan, and Jin Gang Quan.

Advanced Circle Walking Training to Fight

While each school of Ba Gua will have their own methods for developing the advanced circle walk practice, in this article we will explain the advanced practice as it is taught by Park Bok Nam. In Park's system the first practice a student will graduate to after the basic circle walk is the yin-yang circle walking pattern as shown in the diagram below (the arrows indicate the walking pattern) and the photographs on the previous page. The changing of the palms in this pattern is executed as the practitioner transitions The yin-yang pattern is the first of the many patterns that are practiced as part of Park's pole training. After the student has practiced the yin-yang pattern around one central pole and become proficient in the mechanics and timing of these movements, the practitioner will then begin to practice walking a figure-eight pattern around two poles. From there the student will progress to walking a double figure-eight around three poles. This pattern is demonstrated in the...

The Fundamentals of Ba Gua Broadsword

Double Broadsword Chinese

The photographs, Park could begin to walk the circle to the opponent's left side while maintaining the pressure with his left hand on the back of the sword. The circle walking footwork would facilitate the sword slicing across the opponent's arms or neck, depending on how the sword was guide by the right hand. While walking the circle, the left hand will remain behind the sword to apply the cutting pressure. Also, by keeping the left hand on the back of the sword, Park would be ready to once again, at any time, execute the dragon back application of power to cut deeply into the opponent's flesh. For instance, one possibility is for Park to begin walking the circle after the application shown in photo 2, allowing the blade to slice across the front of the opponent's neck and around the left side. Once Park reached the opponent's flank, he could then turn into the opponent, execute the dragon back mechanic and slide up into the base of the opponent's skull, carving away the meat of the...

A young Fu Chen Sung holds a stone ball which was used in various training exercises

Kung Stone Ball Training

Posed for a series of photographs demonstrating the postures in the push hands sets and Fu Chen-Sung wrote explanations for each. These photos and written explanations have been kept by Fu Yung-Hui. In 1983, Fu Yung-Hui took the volume of information that he had kept secret for so many years and made it public. Among the written explanations were couplets written about this style of push hands and a set of guidelines for practice. These couplets and guidelines are printed on page 23 of this issue.

He Jin Han demonstrates lower piercing palm posture at the Chiang Kai Chek memorial in Taibei Taiwan where he teaches

He Jin Han explains further by saying that every posture or movement has a main direction or, in some cases, two main directions of energy movement. The practitioner must try to understand where the energy of each posture or movement is originating and what path through the body that energy is following in order to reach its destination in the most effective and efficient manner. The right power comes from the right rule and the right movement. The right posture gives you the right road, He Jin Han says. To illustrate what he meant, He Jin Han took out a magazine that had photographs of various martial artists. In one article

Ba Gua Zhang Calendar

Ever since we started publishing the Pa Kua Chang Journal and including photographs of the old Ba Gua masters I have received numerous phone calls and letters from people wanting copies of some of the photographs so they could hang them in their school or workout space. I have been reluctant simply because it would have been a lot of work to make single blow up copies of these pictures for those who wanted them. But now I've come up with a solution, a Ba Gua Zhang Calendar for 1996. Each month the calendar will include a photo approximately 8 X10 in size of one of the first few generations of Ba Gua masters, among them Dong Hai Chuan, Yin Fu, Zhang Zhao Dong, Li Cun Yi, Sun Lu Tang, Fu Zhen Song, Cheng Yu Xin, Liu Feng Cai, etc. These photographs will be suitable for framing and hanging up as single phots for those who want specific photos to hang on their walls. Others can hang the calender and enjoy a different photo every month. I anticipate that these calendars will make great...

Kai Guo Jing Wrapping In and Opening

There are two basic kai guo jing two partner drills. These drills are shown in photographs on the next page. These drills can be executed to the inside or to the outside of the opponent's arm. In executing the drill to the inside, first use the forward hand to check inside the opponent's wrist. Next, bring the back hand from underneath to continue checking the wrist as you chop. This sequence is shown at the top of the next page. If the opponent reaches up to block the first chop, execute the technique again clearing his blocking hand away and chop one more time. This sequence is shown in the second set of photos on the next page. This technique may be performed to the inside or the outside.

This portrait of Kao ISheng which was given to Chang by Chou Chi Chun still hangs in his home

In Taipei, typhoons often bring floods to the city and the area around Chang's home flooded up to the second floor on a number of occasions. Many of Chang's early photographs and written materials were destroyed in these floods. Later, in about 1961, Chang and his wife built a home on some land that he owned off of Hsin-I Road in Taipei. The building they lived in had five stories. Chang taught classes on the second and fifth floors. Chang's wife and some of his children still live in this building today.

Chang Chun Fengs Books

The Pa Kua Chang book included much of the information which is contained in Kao I-Sheng's Pa Kua Chang book. Kao I-Sheng's original book, which he completed in 1936, was inherited by his student Liu Feng-Ts'ai when Kao died. Liu Feng-Ts'ai was the student who helped Kao write the book. Today this book is owned by Liu Feng-Ts'ai's grand-nephew Liu Shu-Hang. While I was visiting with Liu Shu-Hang in Tianjin in April, 1993, he was kind enough to let me look at Kao's book and take a number of photographs of its pages (see photo at right). The book is written in six volumes and contains detailed information on the Hsien T'ien and Hou T'ien Pa Kua as well as Hsing-I's five elements and a section on health exercises. Comparing the contents of Kao's book with

Zhang Jun Feng 1902 1974

During the late 1950's to the mid-1960's, one of Hong's top students was Xu Hong Ji, who subsequently branched off from Hong's school and opened his own school in the mid-1960's under the name Shen Long (Spirit Dragon) Tang Shou Tao ( H M -f - it). Like Hong, Xu had also studied the Japanese style martial arts and some Shaolin before practicing Xing Yi. This lineage is depicted in the photographs above.

Chang with students The young kids are four of Changs eight children

Chang Chunfeng

Another book which Chang wrote detailed free fighting applications in a series of photographs showing each application with attack and counter-moves. The book also included a set of staff exercises. Chang's wife and three other students worked with Chang on the book and posed with him for the photographs. Chang worked on this book for 2 or 3 years before it was complete. When he was finished with the book, he sent the original to Li Ying-Arng in Hong Kong as he hoped Li would be able to help him get it published. Li promised to have the

New Products Available

The next new items we now have available are Joseph Crandall's translations of The Genuine Transmission of Ba Gua Quan by Sun Xi Kun and Henan Orthodox Xing Yi Quan by Pei Xi Rong and Li Ying Ang. The Sun Xi Kun book is presented in a saddle bound volume (like the binding on this journal) with photographs of Sun (all of the photos of Sun Xi Kun that appear in this issue are taken directly from the book). The Xing Yi book is presented in a Xerox, velo-bound format and is a valuable addition to any Xing Yi practitioner's library.

Chuan Zhang 1Chuan Zhang

The power is generated from the legs and turning of the waist, not the strength of the arms. Be sure to coordinate the movement of the hands so that the pulling back of the forward hand initiates the forward piercing of the back hand. This exercise sequence is shown in the photographs. The components of this movement are included in the majority of Ba Gua techniques.

An Introduction to Ba Gua Throws

During this throw the opponent's body will literally spiral from head to foot as he is being thrown to the ground. The center of the spiral is typically your own center. The majority of these techniques involve offsetting the opponent's balance and then spinning rapidly around your own center while leading the opponent's head to the ground in a downward spiral. Most spiral throwing techniques involve the principles of moving with the opponent, joining centers (in which one attaches to the opponent so he becomes an appendage connected to your own center), and leading momentum. The momentum is continuous from the moment of connection until the opponent is on the ground. The basic principle here is to connect with the opponent, moving with his momentum to join centers, then lead him around and down in a smooth spiral. The opponent should feel as if he threw a punch into a void and fell off a cliff. Many of the spinning and rapid turning movements of Ba Gua are designed to be used when...

Some Records Of Other Speeds Of Taijiquan

Yang Shou Hou had few disciples, one of them was the famous master Wu Tu Nan who lived to be 105. Before Wu Tu Nan died, he published a book in which he recorded Yang Shao Hou's boxing set and the only known photographs of the set being performed by Wu himself. He writes this concerning how the form is performed

Techniques vs Principles

Every month I receive one or two letters asking me to print more articles on Ba Gua Zhang fighting techniques or applications. One problem with doing such a thing, besides the fact that it is difficult to learn from written word and photographs, is that Ba Gua Zhang is not a technique oriented art. The moves in Ba Gua Zhang forms, especially the circle walking forms, are not technique specific. In fact, many of them are far to complex to really be applied efficiently in a fighting situation. That is why most all lineages of Ba Gua developed straight-line fighting sets. These sets were based on the principles of the circle walking forms, but the moves were executed in a shorter, smaller, tighter, and faster fashion.

One replaces ones myriad thoughts with a single thought in order to calm and ease ones mind

Taoist Saying

Convinced that Tung Hai-Ch'uan had learned the Taoist circle walk practice as a member of the Chuan Chen Taoist sect and had then integrated this practice with the martial arts he had learned in his youth to form Pa Kua Chang, K'ang Ke-Wu began to research the arts that Tung was known to have practiced to see if he could detect similarities. Since the Tung family was known for it Pa Fan Ch'uan and thus K'ang was fairly certain that Tung Hai-Ch'uan had studied this art in his youth, K'ang investigated the forms and postures of this art with the elderly practitioners of today. Not only did he discover that Pa Fan Ch'uan techniques rely heavily on the use of palm striking, he also found that many of the postures and movements of Pa Fan Ch'uan are identical to Pa Kua Chang. Included in K'ang's thesis are photographs of Pa Fan Ch'uan practitioners postures compared to Pa Kua Chang postures found in Pa Kua Chang books by Kuo Ku-Min, Sun Lu-T'ang, Sun Hsi-K'un and Huang Po-Nien. He concluded...

General Principals

With certain exceptions, most postures in the Hand Form require us to rest most of our weight on one leg, making it easy to move the other leg to change posture, and to shift the weight from one leg to the other as we practice. The photographs of the form should be studied carefully so that we get this balance right and are able to move freely

Editors Corner

Before meeting her I had heard rumors that she was hard to get along with and didn't like to talk with people, but my experience was just the opposite. She was very open and honest, extremely energetic and a delight to visit. She posed for numerous photographs, presented each of us with photographs of her father, and gave me a book which she endorses as her father's true biography.


Upon receiving a mission, the sniper team locates the target area and then determines the best location for a tentative position by using one or more of the following sources of information topographic maps, aerial photographs, visual reconnaissance before the mission, and information gained from units operating in the area.

Photographic Credits

6-John Heseltine 10-Science Photo Library 15-MarkJarvis Photo Library 18-The Image Bank 22-Ma'rk Jarvis Photo Library 24 Fausto Dorelli 33-Mark Jarvis Photo Library 37-Heather Angel 38-Fausto Dorelli 40-Tania Midgley 4 5-Mark Jarvis Photo Library 47-Fausto Dorelli 48-Brian Rogers Biofotos 50-MarkJarvis Photo Library 54-Gaia Books 60-Tania Midgley 62, 82, 85-Fausto Dorelli 87-Dave Thorp 88-Fausto Dorelli 91,95-John Heseltine Photography 100-The Image Bank 102,108-Fausto Dorelli Ills-Wildlife Matters 113-Fausto Dorelli 117,121-Heather Angel 122-Dave Thorp 129-The Image Bank 131 Andrew Lawson 137-Image Bank 138-Tania Midgley 140-Mark Jarvis 158-Bubbles Photo Library 161-Fausto Dorelli 163-Dave Thorp 166-Bubbles Photo Library 169-The Image Bank 171-Bubbles Photo Library


The following instructors from the International Krav Maga Federation invested many hours, applying their expertise in demonstrating the various techniques in the 500-odd photographs contained in this volume. Their significant contribution to the coherence of this publication is greatly appreciated Gabi Noah Eli Ben-Ami Avi Moyal Amnon Darsa Dori Nemetsky Yoav Gaon. Thanks to the following Krav Maga instructors who feature in one or more of the historical photos contained in this book Shaike Barak Hayim Zut Guy Cohen.

By John D Bracy

Bagua Circle Walking

Fortunately my stomach was upset the morning of the field trip and I was unable to attend. I did not have to endure the 3 1 2 hour and the 4 1 2 hour bus rides to and from Wen An and the home of Dong Hai Chuan. However, it was a major event for Dong's town. Dong Hai Chuan's family home was the main attraction. The home town village made a grand presentation. Everyone came out for the event flag waving children lined the streets as the conference buses came and the mayor and province officials were there to make speeches. A model of a planned Dong Hai Chuan Ba Gua training center was unveiled. Detailed plans and financial solicitations were made the following day during the paper presentation. According to one person on the trip it seemed that persons appearing to be nonChinese were not allowed to take pictures of the Dong house and locality.

Basic Exercise

Spinning Motion

If you analyze this motion you will see that the palm is always facing upward and the fingertips navigated a full 360 degree circle two times to bring it back to its original position. Many of you may be familiar with various versions of this exercise. When practicing the version shown here in the photographs, be sure to have the motion of the hands connected to, and powered by, the body. In the photograph sequence, you can see how Liang gains power from the waist and legs in the sequence of photos 5 through 7. In photo

Mission Preparation

Estimate when time is available, he makes a formal, mental estimate. The sniper learns as much as he can about the enemy and mission requirements and applies it to the terrain in the assigned area. Since an on-the-ground reconnaissance is not tactically feasible for most sniper operations, the sniper uses maps, pictomaps, or aerial photographs of the objective and surrounding area to help formulate his tentative plan. This plan is the basis for team preparation, coordination, movement, and reconnaissance.

Coiling Waist Palm

Pushing Palm Wushu

And all parts of the body are in continuous motion, it is difficult to pick which moments to capture in still photographs for purpose of explanation. However, since this move is so characteristic of the Fu style, we wanted to include it in this issue. Although the move is broken down into a number of steps below, keep in mind that the coiling waist palm maneuver is executed smoothly and is performed rapidly.

Bow sleeping

When you meditate don't think of the time, but just go on for as long as you feel comfortable. When you want to finish your meditation, you should complete with Shou Gong, which means Ending Exercise or Collecting or Balancing Exercise. No matter what kind of Qigong you practise, you must always do this as it brings your Qi back to the Dantien to store it so it is not lost. If you have been meditating in a sitting or lying position you should do the Shou Gong sitting (see following photographs). If you have been meditating standing up, you should do the Shou Gong standing too.


Like most Ba Gua Zhang teacher's, Xie starts his students walking the circle holding static upper body postures. Although the very first posture a student will be taught depends upon the student's size and physical build, this posture is not part of his eight animal system. Those postures come later. The first posture is either an upper, middle, or lower palm posture as shown in the photographs on the next page. Big people will start with the upper posture, medium size people will start with the middle posture and small, agile people will start with the lower posture. Xie teaches these walking postures first so that the students will begin to develop strength in the fists, elbows and shoulders.

Training Exercises

No training exercise described here is merely an isolated rehearsal in agility or clever movement each is directly related to some particular fighting tactic. The reader is advised to pay special attention to the textual description of the exercise as well as to the illustrations, for sometimes the limitations of photography have cancelled the authors' efforts to record as faithfully as possible what was being enacted before the lens, and, in such cases, the written word must be relied on to impart information that the photographs fail to show.

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Get Paid to Take Digital Photos

Reasonable care has been taken to ensure that the information presented in this book isĀ  accurate. However, the reader should understand that the information provided does not constitute legal, medical or professional advice of any kind.

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