Factors Affecting the Training Response

The terms duration, frequency and intensity are commonly used when talking about training for fitness or health. All training programs, whether running, biking, swimming, or climbing, strive to vary in duration, frequency, and intensity so as to optimize conditioning and minimize injuries. Five major factors determine the extent of your maximal aerobic capacity and the magnitude of your response to training. These include Initial level of aerobic fitness General principles apply to all types of...

Interval Training

Various interval training techniques can be used for building speed. Ideally, speed work would be done on a measured track. Sample interval training workouts are provided in Figure 4-6. Two important points arc Rest periods between reps for intervals to train the anaerobic energy systems should be equal or slightly less than time to cover distance quarter mile 60 seconds rest 60 seconds) Rest periods to train aerobic system should be less than one-half time to cover distance (half-mile 2 50...

Common Mission and Training Related Injuries

Given the nature of the SEAL's occupation, it is not surprising that injuries occur during training and mission-related scenarios. Clearly, the type of injury will depend on the specific physical tasks and the environments under which the tasks are performed. Table 12-5 presents a brief summary of some of the anticipated and common injuries that may occur during mission-related platforms. Other than these platforms, many of the injuries are a result of activities all SEALs participate in,...

Table 83 Tips for Developing a Buddy Assisted Exercise Program

A 5-10 minute warm-up should precede each exercise session followed by stretching for the part of the body to be exercised. Perform 6-10 reps per set. Each partner should perform 1-3 sets per exercise. Completion of exercises for a muscle group should be followed by stretches for body area exercised. Partners should be of similar height and weight. Some examples of buddy assisted exercises are provided in Table 8-4. Additional exercises and illustrations can be found in Gain W., Hartmann J....

Terms Related to Conditioning

Many terms are used to define or describe exercise conditioning and work rate, also referred to as exercise intensity or work load. The two terms used throughout this chapter for describing how to gauge your work rate will be maximal oxygen uptake and energy expenditure as calories hour, or kcal hr. Other terms to describe work rate and their interrelationships will be discussed at the end of this chapter. The primary measure or predictors of one's capacity to sustain work performance is...

Specific Mission Related Physical Tasks

In order to identify the physical demands of direct action SEAL operation, a study was undertaken in early 1990 by the Naval Health Research Center. Missions and the physical requirements i.e., aerobic and anaerobic components necessary to complete each mission and mission segment were evaluated. In brief, a total of 82 SEALs, averaging 11 years of experience, participated in the study. Subject matter experts from operational platoons were interviewed regarding missions they had conducted as...

Muscle Groups

Standing Leg Swings

3-count exercise Begin from a standing position with arms bent, fists midline at chest level, and elbows out to the side. On Press-Press-Fling count 1, pull elbows the midline of the back, stretching the chest muscles, and release. Repeat the same movement on count 2. On count 3, extend the arms out and backwards, stretching the chest muscles. No count exercise Start from a standing position with body weight over the heels. Flex and extend the feet and toes. Stretch should be felt In both the...

Table 84 Buddy Exercise Drills

Support partner holds leg and opposite arm of lead partner. Lead partner performs a squat until thigh of bent leg is parallel to ground using support partner for balance. Lead partner returns to starting position. Fireman Squats and Lunges Cartilage Crunchers Lead partner holds support partner in fireman's carry. Using support partner's weight for resistance, lead partner performs a squat until thighs are parallel to floor and then returns to standing position....

Short Flexibility Program

Flexibility exercises are an important physical fitness component and may add years to your operational life. For those who have been injured, the high mileage SEAL see Chapter 14 , or someone with naturally short muscles, a short flexibility program is provided in Table 15-9. Hold each for 15 to 30 seconds and perform two times on each side when appropriate. Lateral Forward Neck Flexion Posterior Shoulder Stretch Upper Back Stretch Swimmer's Stretch 3-Way Hurdler s Supine Back A11 exorcises...

The focus should be on the quality not the quantity of situps

Calisthenic Student Aerobic

The same principles that govern the muscle strength-endurance continuum apply to the abdominal musculature. The muscular fitness component you will develop i.e., strength vs. endurance is determined by the number of sit-ups performed using a towel or Ab Mat beginning with 15 gt of extension. If muscle strength is the goal, you may want to move to 30 extension. Once you are performing over 15 reps per set at 30 extension, you can increase the difficulty of the exercise by changing the position...

Flexibility Training Methods

There are several training methods used to develop flexibility however, most fall under the following general categories Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF Dynamic stretching sometimes referred to as active stretching consists of controlled movements which increase in range and or speed so that you gradually reach your full range and speed of movement e.g., slow, controlled leg swings or kicks, controlled arm swings, hack bends . This type of stretching often mimics the activity that...

FITT Frequency Intensity Time Type

In order for the SEAL operator to perform mission-related tasks, strength training is a key aspect that must not be overlooked. Understanding the concepts of Frequency, Intensity, Time, and Type FITT principle will help you understand and maximize your training. The FREQUENCY of training should be determined by the amount of time one has to spend on strength training. As SEAL operators, your weight training time is limited due to busy schedules, so keep this in mind when your start a program....

Running Shoes

Running Shoe

A good pair of running shoes will provide shock absorption, cushioning, motion control and durability, and ultimately help prevent injuries. Under no circumstance should you buy shoes if they do not fit correctly. Running magazines usually have a yearly review of various running shoes, newest models of shoes and the type of runner the shoes are most suited to. You can also obtain current information from Running Sites Pages on the worldwide web. It is wise to try on several different shoes at a...

METs and Watts

The term MET, which was used in the national recommendations for exercise, is often used to estimate energy expenditure and work rate. A MET is defined as a multiple of resting metabolic rate or energy expenditure. One MET is between 0.200 to 0.250 liters of oxygenV'min, or approximately one kcal min, depending on the weight and body type of the person. Two METS would be two times resting metabolic rate or approximately 0.5 liters 2 X 0.200 to 0.250 of oxygen min, or 2 kcal min. Likewise, 3...

List of Tables

Skill- and Health-Related Components of Physical Fitness 2 Table 1-1. Distinguishing Characteristics of Major Muscle Fiber Types 9 Table 1 -2. Percentage Contributed by Each Energy System to Overall Energy Needs of Various Activities 16 Table 1 -3. Contribution of the Various Energy Systems According to Table 1 -4. Various Effects of Physical Conditioning 19 Table 2-1. A Summary of Various SEAL Missions 22 Table 2-2. Physical Requirements for Specific Missions and Mission Elements 28...

How Plyometrics Work

Plyomctric excrciscs help to develop explosive strength and speed in fast twitch muscle fibers. These exercises use the inherent stretch-recoil properties of muscle i.e., eccentric tension generated when the muscles are lengthened to enhance subsequent shortening or concentric contractions. This is the dynamic action behind the rapid pre-stretch or cocking phase to activate these natural recoil properties. Examples of this phase include taking the arm hack into position prior to throwing a...

Cardiorespiratory Conditioning

The American College of Sports Medicine ACSM and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently formulated new guidelines for the American public with respect to exercise. The new recommendations state that Eveiy US adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate, intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week. They defined moderate intensity physical activity as activity performed at an intensity of 3 to 6 MKTS, or the equivalent of brisk walking at 3 to...

Stationary Exercise Alternatives

There are many types of rowing machines on the market, and each has distinct advantages and disadvantages. The best rowing machine is one with variable resistance and the ability to regulate rowing rate. Most provide feedback on either watts or kcalories per hour, as well as meters covered. Proper technique is critical so as not harm your lower back. If proper technique is maintained, cardiorespiratory conditioning can easily be achieved. In fact, both the upper and lower body are exercised,...

The Muscle Strength Endurance Continuum

Muscle strength and muscle endurance exist on a continuum. Given that muscle strength is the amount of force generated by one repetition and muscle endurance is the ability to exert force repeatedly over time, improving muscle strength will improve muscle endurance. If your one repetition maximum weight is increased, your submaximum multiple repetitions can be performed with more weight resistance . Muscle strength is developed by performing low-repetition 6-12 , high-resistance exercises. When...

Calisthenics in Naval Special Warfare

Flexion And Extension

Muscle strength and endurance are both essential for operational performance. Muscular strength is also required for many Special Warfare missions. Muscular endurance is needed when work is required over longer periods of time e.g., patrolling with a heavy load, climbing with equipment, swimming, or carrying a buddy . The goal of a physical training PT program for the SEAL should be to develop complete muscular fitness i.e., strength, endurance, and power . Muscle strength provides the...

Conditioning and Deconditioning

Conditioning and deconditioning, also known as training and detraining, are responsible for gains and losses, respectively, in fitness levels. Whereas conditioning is a gradual process and may take six or more weeks to see specific effects, deconditioning occurs relatively quickly. Some of the various metabolic and cardiorespiratory effects of conditioning arc presented in Table 1-4. Table 1-4. Various Effects of Physical Conditioning 1T levels of ATP, CP, glycogen it in blood volume it levels...

Final Comments From RADM Smith

Self Defense Guide

This manual is a superb guide covering all the major focus areas required to maintain fitness as a SEAL. I offer as a final piece of SEAL culture, my version of burn-out PT in Table 15-11. The progression of the program is as follows start at Stage 1 and cycle through the first set of each exercise, followed by the next sets. Next, move on to Stage 2 and use the same sequence. Begin with lower reps per exorcise, with the goal of eventually completing the PT as set forth in Table 15-11. Those...

Anabolic Androgenic Steroids

Anabolic Androgenic steroids, hereafter referred to as AAS, have been used by athletes to improve performance for more than 30 years. The non-medical use of AAS is widespread among athletes engaged in power sports such as power-lifting, bodybuilding, football and rugby. Their popularity stems from their perceived contribution to increase muscle bulk and strength and to improve competitiveness. There are more than one million estimated users of AAS in the United States alone. Approximately 2 of...

Distribution of Fiber Types

The amount of Type I and Type II muscle fibers in an individual is genetically pre-determined, and all normal skeletal muscle contains all fiber types. However, the proportion or distribution of these fiber types within and across individuals differs. Moreover, within an individual, the distribution of fibers in various muscles can vary widely. Physical training may transform muscle fiber type, and the metabolic capacity of both type I and type II muscle fibers can be modified by endurance and...