Conditioning and deconditioning, also known as training and detraining, are responsible for gains and losses, respectively, in fitness levels. Whereas conditioning is a gradual process and may take six or more weeks to see specific effects, deconditioning occurs relatively quickly. Some of the various metabolic and cardiorespiratory effects of conditioning arc presented in Table 1-4.
Table 1-4. Various Effects of Physical Conditioning
1T levels of ATP, CP, glycogen it in blood volume it levels of anaerobic enzymes JJ heart rate at given workload ft capacity to tolerate blood lactate it stroke volume it levels of oxygen within muscle 1T ability to take oxygen from blood it levels of aerobic enzymes improvement in blood pressure
1i capacity to use fat as fuel it ability to handle heat load
Effects of dcconditioning will be noticed within one to four weeks. Dcconditioning reverses the positive metabolic, cardiac, respiratory and muscle enzyme effects that result from conditioning. Some major effects of dcconditioning include:
♦ Decrease in maximal aerobic capacity - Heart rate for a given exercise workload is higher and the amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat is reduced.
♦ More rapid build up of lactic acid during exercise which leads to earlier fatigue.
♦ Reduction in levels of key muscle enzymes which regulate the muscles ability to generate energy from various sources.
♦ Reduced ability to store glycogen in muscle between workouts.
♦ Reduced breathing volume which will decrease the amount of oxygen being taken to the exercising muscle
♦ Decreased endurance capacity - time to fatigue is shortened.
♦ Decreased ability to dissipate body heat during exercise: the ability to exercise in adverse environments, such as in the heat, is reduced due to all factors mentioned above.
Retraining is necessary to reverse the performance reducing effects of dcconditioning. However, deconditioning can be prevented or minimized by maintaining usual exercise intensity during endurance and strength workouts, when the number or length of work outs is decreased. Aerobic capacity and decreased lactic acid accumulation during exercise can be maintained by training at least two to three times per week at your usual training intensity. Strength gains can be maintained by including one to two strength training workouts sessions per week. Specific training methods for maintaining fitness under deployed conditions and while overcoming an injury will be discussed in other chapters (see Chapters 11 and 12).
This type of recovery means that you continue to exercise at. a low to moderate (30% to 50% of your maximal heart rate) intensity for several minutes after your regular workout. For example, walk for 5 to 10 minutes after completing a run. The benefits of active recovery and additional information about this type of recovery are provided in Chapter 3: Cardiorespiratory Conditioning.
Was this article helpful?
Achieve the Fitness and Wellness for You that you have always wanted by learning the facts so you can take the right steps to maximize your health. Learn How to Achieve Real Fitness and Wellness for a Healthy Body, Mind and Spirit to Improve Your Quality of Life in Today's World. Receive Valuable Information to Discover What Really Matters and What Actually Works in Finding Genuine Wholeness for All Aspects of Your Being