Table of Contents

The Warrior Zero Body Weight Challenge

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An Introduction by RADM Raymond C. Smith i

List of Tables xl

List of Figures xv

Introduction 1

Chapter 1 Overview of Physical Fitness 3

Exercise Physiology 3

Definitions and Terminology 3

Muscle Structure and Function 7

Type I Muscle Fibers 8

Type II Muscle Fibers 8

Distribution of Fiber Types 9

Principles of Physical Training 10

Overload 10

Specificity of Training 11

Individual Differences 11

Detraining 11

Determining Your Training Heart Rate 12

Energy Systems Used by Exercising Muscle 14

ATP-CP System for Speed Work 14

Lactic Acid and ATP-CP System for Anaerobic Work 15

Oxygen System for Aerobic Energy 15

Methods of Physical Training 16

Interval Training 17

Sprint Training 18

Interval Sprints 18

Acceleration Sprints 18

Fartlek or Speed Play 18

Continuous Exercise Training 18

Repetition Running 19

Conditioning and Deconditioning 19

Active Recovery 20

Chapter 2 SEAL Mission-Related Physical Activities 21

Mission-Specific Activities 22

Small Unit Patrolling 22

High Speed Boat Operations 23

Combat Swimmer Operations 24

SDV and Dry Deck Shelter Operations 25

Urban Warfare 25

Winter Warfare Operations 26

Specific Mission-Related Physical Tasks 26

Summary 30

Chapter 3 Cardiorespiratory Conditioning 31

Basics Concepts of Cardiorespiratory Exercise 32

Terms Related to Conditioning 33

Determination of Work Rate 34

Factors Affecting the Training Response 35

Active Recovery 36

How to Estimate Your Maximal Aerobic Capacity 37

Bicycle Exercise Test Instructions 37

Test Procedures 37

Estimating Maximal Aerobic Capacity 38

Types of Aerobic Activities and Basic Workouts 41

Outdoor Activities 41

Stationary Exercise Alternatives 43

Basic Workouts 49

Other Terms for Work Rate 49

METs and Watts 51

Summary 52

Chapter 4 Running for Fitness 53

Running Gear 54

Running Shoes 54

Clothes 60

Other Gear Items 60

Running Surfaces 61

Warm-Up 63

Cool-Down and Stretching 63

Running Gait or Form 63

Footstrike 64

Forward Stride 64

Body Angle 64

Arm Drive 64

Building Your Mileage 65

Running Frequency 65

Running Speed and Intensity 65

Training for a Marathon 67

Interval Training 68

Varying Your Workouts 69

Common Running Injuries or Problems 69

Resources 70

Chapter 5 Swimming for Fitness 71

Open Water Gear 72

Wet Suits 72

Hood, Gloves and Booties 72

Fins and Fin Selection 73

Face Masks 76

Open Water Training 76

Water Temperature Issues 77

Special Open Water Training Issues 78

Swimming Pool Gear 79

Goggles 79

Kickboard 79

Pullbuoy 79

Hand Paddles 80

Zoomers 80

Nose Clips 80

Pool Training: Building Strength and Endurance 80

Warming Up 81

Basic Principles of Interval Training 81

Interval Sets - Endurance 83

Interval Sets - Strength and Power 84

Integrated Workouts 84

Underwater Training 86

Varying Your Workout 86

Developing Stroke Skills 87

General Stroke Principles 87

The Strokes 88

Swimming Drills 91

Common Problems 92

Chapter 6 Strength Training 93

Weight Training Gear and Equipment 93

Strength Training Guidelines and Terms 94

Repetition Maximum or RM 95

FITT: Frequency, Intensity, Time, Type 95

Muscle Balance and Exercise Selection List 97

Determining Repetition Maximums 98

Periodization 100

Weight Lifting Techniques 103

Types of Workouts 103

Warming Up 105

Cooling Down and Stretching 106

Common Problems 106

Conclusions 107

Resource 107

Acknowledgment 107

Chapter 7 Flexibility 109

Flexibility Benefits 109

Definition 110

The Stretch Reflex and the Lengthening Reaction 111

Flexibility Training Methods 112

Dynamic Stretching 113

Static Stretching 113

Ballistic Stretching 113

PNF Stretching 114

Warming-Up and Stretching 115

General Warm-Up 116

Activity-Specific Warm-Up 116

Recommended Stretches 118

Dynamic Stretching 118

Static Stretching 122

A Post-Exercise Total Body Stretching Program 130

Resources 131

Chapters Calisthenics 133

The Muscle Strength-Endurance Continuum 133

Calisthenics in Naval Special Warfare 135

Balancing Abs and Hip Flexors and Extensors 137

Recommendations for Sit-Ups 140

Recommendations for Calisthenics 142

Calisthenic Exercises 143

Modified Calisthenic Exercises 153

Resources 158

Chapter 9 Plyometrics 159

How Plyometrics Work 160

Preparation for Plyometric Training 161

Safety in Plyometric Training 161

Program Design and the Overload Principle 162

Plyometric Training 166

Plyometric Exercises 166

Eccentric Downhill Training 172

Resources 172

Chapter 10 Load-Bearing 175

Physiological and Environmental Factors 176

Body and Load Weight 176

Biomechanics of Load-Bearing 177

Load-Bearing and Walking Pace 177

Hydration Status 179

Environmental Stress 179

Sleep Loss 180

Protective Clothing 180

Physical Training for Load- Bearing 180

Elements of a Load-Bearing Conditioning Program 180

Initiating Load Training 181

Maintaining Load-Bearing Fitness 182

Optimizing Load-Bearing 182

Common Medical Conditions 183

Conclusion 183

Acknowledg ments 183

Chapter 11 Training for Specific Environments 185

Training in Hot Environments 186

Factors that Hinder Body Cooling in the Heat 186

Heat Acclimation 187

Heat Injuries 188

Summary for Hot Environments 190

Training in Cold Environments 190

Factors that Compromise Adaptations to Cold 191

Acclimation to the Cold 191

Cold Injuries 192

Nutritional Requirements 193

Summary for a Cold Environment 194

Training at Altitude 194

Acute Mountain Sickness 195

Other Factors that Hinder Performance at Altitude 195

Acclimation to Altitude 196

Training in Confined Spaces 196

Deconditioning 198

Chapter 12 Training and Sports Related Injuries 199

Treatments for Training-Related Injuries 200

Reduce Inflammation 200

Application of Ice 201

Range of Motion 202

Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) 203

Reconditioning for Return to Full Activity 205

Return to Mission-Related Tasks 206

General Guidelines for Returning to Physical Activity 206

Types of Injuries 207

Training-Related Muscle Soreness 207

Contusions 207

Sprains and Strains 208

Muscle Cramps 208

Fractures 209

Common Mission and Training Related Injuries 211

Swimming 213

Running and Hiking 214

Knee Sprains 214

Ankle Sprains 215

Overtraining Syndrome 215

When to Seek Medical Care 217

Chapter 13 Harmful Substances that Affect Performance 221

Anabolic/Androgenic Steroids 221

How do Anabolic Steroids Work? 222

How Anabolic Steroids Alter Metabolism 224

Purported Beneficial Effects of Anabolic Steroids 224

Adverse Effects of Anabolic Steroids 225

Legalities of Steroid Use 227

Medical Uses of Corticosteroids 227

Other Harmful Chemicals 227

Growth Hormone 227

Clenbuterol 228

Stimulants 228

Erythropoietin 231

DHEA 232

Summary 233

Resources 233

Chapter 14 Other Training-Related Issues 235

Winter Warfare Training 235

Training for Skiing 236

Turns, Stops, and Technique 236

The High Mileage SEAL 237

Nutritional Ergogenic Agents 241

Nutritional Products Advertised as Ergogenic Agents 241

Summary of Ergogenic Agents 244

Protein-Carbohydrate Supplements 245

Resource 246

Chapter 15 Physical Fitness and Training Recommendations 247

The SEAL Physical Fitness Program 247

A Physical Fitness Program for Confined Spaces 253

A Physical Fitness Program for Coming Off Travel 254

Elimination of "Old" Exercises 256

A Short Flexibility Program 257

The Navy SEAL Physical Readiness Test (PRT) 258

Final Comments From: RADM Smith 260

Summary 263

Appendix A. Weight Lifting Techniques 265

Appendix B. Common Anatomical Terms and Diagrams 275

Appendix C. Foot Care for Load-Bearing 281

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