Single-channel radio equipment has certain capabilities and limitations that must be carefully considered when operating in cold areas. However, in spite of limitations, radio is the normal means of communications in such areas. One of the most important capabilities of the radio in Arctic-like areas is its versatility. Man-packed radios can be carried to any point accessible by foot or aircraft. A limitation on radio communications that radio operators must expect in extremely cold areas is interference by ionospheric disturbances. These disturbances, known as ionospheric storms, have a definite degrading effect on skywave propagation. Moreover, either the storms or the auroral (such as northern lights) activity can cause complete failure of radio communications. Some frequencies may be blocked completely by static for extended periods during storm activity. Fading, caused by changes in the density and height of the ionosphere, can also occur and may last from minutes to weeks. The occurrence of these disturbances is difficult to predict. When they occur, the use of alternate frequencies and a greater reliance on FM or other means of communications are required.
a. Antenna Installation. Antenna installation in Arctic-like areas presents no serious problems. However, installing some antennas may take longer because of adverse working conditions. Some suggestions for installing antennas in extremely cold areas areas follows:
(1) Antenna cables must be handled carefully since they become brittle in low temperatures.
(2) Whenever possible, antenna cables should be constructed overhead to prevent damage from heavy snow and frost. Nylon rope guidelines, if available, should be used in preference to cotton or hemp because nylon ropes do not readily absorb moisture and are less likely to freeze and break.
(3) An antenna should have extra guidelines, supports, and anchor stakes to strengthen it to withstand heavy ice and wind.
(4) Some radios (usually older generation radios) adjusted to a specific frequency in a relatively warm place may drift off frequency when exposed to extreme cold. Low battery voltage can also cause frequency drift. When possible, a radio should warmup several minutes before placing it into operation. Since extreme cold tends to lower output voltage of a dry battery, warming the battery with body heat before operating the radio set can reduce frequency drift.
(5) Flakes or pellets of highly electrically charged snow is sometimes experienced in northern regions. When these particles strike the antenna, the resulting electrical discharge causes a high-pitched static roar that can blanket all frequencies. To overcome this static, antenna elements can be covered with polystyrene tape and shellac.
b. Maintenance Improvement in Arctic Areas. The maintenance of radio equipment in extreme cold presents many problems. Radio sets must be protected from blowing snow since snow will freeze to dials and knobs and blow into the wiring to cause shorts and grounds. Cords must be handled carefully as they may lose their flexibility in extreme cold. All radio equipment must be properly winterized. The appropriate technical manual should be checked for winterization procedures. Some suggestions for maintenance in Arctic areas include:
(1) Batteries. The effect of cold weather conditions on wet and dry cell batteries depends on the following factors: the type and kind of battery, the load on the battery, the specific use of the battery, and the degree of exposure to cold temperatures.
(2) Winterization. The radio set technical manual should rechecked for special precautions for operation in extremely cold climates. For example, normal lubricants may solidify and cause damage or malfunctions. They must be replaced with the recommended Arctic lubricants.
(3) Microphone. Moisture from the sniper's breath may freeze on the perforated cover plate of his microphone. Standard microphone covers can be used to prevent this. If standard covers are not available, a suitable cover can be improvised from rubber or cellophane membranes or from rayon or nylon cloth.
(4) Breathing and sweating. A radio set generates heat when it is operated. When turned off, the air inside the radio set cools and contracts, and draws cold air into the set from the outside. This is called breathing. When a radio breathes and the still-hot parts come in contact with subzero air, the glass, plastic, and ceramic parts of the set may cool too rapidly and break. When cold equipment is brought suddenly into contact with warm air, moisture condenses on the equipment parts. This is called sweating. Before cold equipment is brought into a heated area, it should be wrapped in a blanket or parka to ensure that it warms gradually to reduce sweating. Equipment must be thoroughly dry before it is taken into the cold air or the moisture will freeze.
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