Image Intensification And Infrared Devices

The sniper team employs night and limited visibility devices to conduct continuous operations.

a. Night Vision Sight, AN/PVS-4. The AN/PVS-4 is a portable, battery-operated, electro-optical instrument that can be hand-held for visual observation or weapon-mounted for precision fire at night (Figure 2-26). The observer can detect and resolve distant targets through the unique capability of the sight to amplify reflected ambient light (moon, stars, or sky glow). The sight is passive thus, it is free from enemy detection by visual or electronic means. This sight, with appropriate weapons adapter bracket, can be mounted on the M16 rifle.

(1) Uses. The M16 rifle with the mounted AN/PVS-4 is effective in achieving a first-round hit out to and beyond 300 meters, depending on the light conditions. The AN/PVS-4 is mounted on the M16 since the

nightsight's limited range does not make its use practical for the sniper weapon system. This avoids problems that may occur when removing and replacing the sniperscope. The nightsight provides an effective observation ability during night combat operations. The sight does not give the width, depth, or clarity of daylight vision; however, a well-trained operator can see enough to analyze the tactical situation, to detect enemy targets, and to place effective fire on them. The sniper team uses the AN/PVS-4 to accomplish the following:

(a) To enhance their night observation capability.

(b) To locate and suppress hostile fire at night.

(c) To deny enemy movement at night.

(d) To demoralize the enemy with effective first-round kills at night.

(2) Employment factors. Since the sight requires target illumination and does not project its own light source, it will not function in total darkness. The sight works best on a bright, moonlit night. When there is no light or the ambient light level is low (such as in heavy vegetation), the use of artificial or infrared light improves the sight's performance.

(a) Fog, smoke, dust, hail, or rain limit the range and decrease the resolution of the instrument.

(b) The sight does not allow seeing through objects in the field of view. For example, the operator will experience the same range restrictions when viewing dense wood lines as he would when using other optical sights.

(c) The observer may experience eye fatigue when viewing for prolonged periods. Viewing should be limited to 10 minutes, followed by a rest period of 10 minutes. After several periods of viewing, he can safely extend this time limit. To assist in maintaining a continuous viewing. capability and to reduce eye fatigue, the observer should use one eye then the other while viewing through the sight.

(3) Zeroing. The operator may zero the sight during daylight or darkness; however, he may have some difficulty in zeroing just l before darkness. The light level at dusk is too low to permit the operator to resolve his zero target with the lens cap cover in place, but it is still intense enough to cause the sight to automatically turnoff unless the lens cap cover is in position over the objective lens. The sniper normally zeros the sight for the maximum practical range that he can be expected to observe and fire, depending on the level of light.

b. Night Vision Goggles, AN/PVS-5. The AN/PVS-5 is a lightweight, passive night vision system that gives the sniper team another means of

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