Snipers Ebooks Catalog

Spec Ops Shooting

Spec Ops Shooting Thrive on the Rabid Gun Shooting Market is a book that aims at transforming you into a better combatant when holding a gun in the battlefield. The book contains three battle-proven strategies that will work your way in the hour of need, helping you conquer the enemy you face with ease. It is a product of Brian Morris and contains a number of secrets to gunfights. The program covers three main techniques that will help maintain brain focus and avoid panicking, something that can get you killed with ease. The initial strategy was developed by Israeli and is meant imparts you skills that aid one's sharpness in mind along with body movements that will enhance your speed and a mastery of the manner in which things will turn out to be. The author was a Green Beret who served for nearly three decades in such a deadly unit. It goes without saying that his work will significantly benefit you. You will get all the necessary details about what you need to know. Considering the world we live in, life can change any minute. You need to be ready to face whatever comes your way. This program will help you do just that. More here...

Spec Ops Shooting Summary


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My Spec Ops Shooting Review

Highly Recommended

The writer presents a well detailed summery of the major headings. As a professional in this field, I must say that the points shared in this book are precise.

I give this ebook my highest rating, 10/10 and personally recommend it.

Sniper Proficiency Training

The purpose of proficiency training is to enable the qualified SEAL scout sniper to jaaintain the degree of skill and proficiency to which he was trained. Proficiency training should be conducted an a quarterly in all sniper skills, although special emphasis should be made on marksmanship and stalking. These should be practiced as frequenly as passible. Every effort should be made to maintain sniper proficiency. Snipers should be requalified each year in all SEAL scout sniper skills. They should also be quizzed and or tested every quarter. Proficiency training should be conducted to the same degree of standards as it was originally taught so not to lose any effectiveness in combat. If a sniper is not retained quarterly in all basic sniper skills, his quality of perfordnance Hill decrease therefore, he will not meet the standards of the SEAL scout sniper. NOTE SEAL scout snipers must be included, in the sniper roll, in norjaal SEAL tactical training and in tactical exercises.

Other Sniper Equipment

Other equipment the sniper needs to complete a successful mission follows a. Sidearms. Each member of the team should have a sidearm, such as an M9, 9-mm Beretta, or a caliber .45 pistol. A sidearm gives a sniper the needed protection from a nearby threat while on the ground moving or while in the confines of a sniper position. b. Compass. Each member of the sniper team must have a lensatic compass for land navigation. d. Calculator. The sniper team needs a pocket-size calculator to figure distances when using the mil-relation formula. Solar-powered calculators usually work well, but under low-light conditions, battery power may be preferred. If a battery-powered calculator is to be used in low-light conditions, it should have a lighted display. e. Rucksack. The sniper's rucksack should contain at least a two-quart canteen, an entrenching tool, a first-aid kit, pruning shears, a sewing kit with canvas needles and nylon thread, spare netting and garnish, rations, and personal items as...

Countersniper Operation

When an enemy sniper threat has been identified in the sniper team's area of operations, the team is employed to eliminate the enemy sniper. a. A sniper team identifies an existing sniper threat by using the following indicators b. The sniper team then determines the best method to eliminate the enemy sniper. To accomplish this, the team gathers information and determines the pattern. (b) Location of encountered enemy sniper fire. (c) Location of enemy sniper sightings. (d) Material evidence of enemy snipers, such as empty brass casings or equipment. (2) Determines patterns. The sniper team evaluates the information to detect established patterns or routines. The team conducts a map reconnaissance, studies aerial photographs, or carries out ground reconnaissance to determine the movement patterns. The sniper must place himself in the position of the enemy and ask, How would I accomplish this mission c. Once a pattern or routine is identified, the sniper team determines the best...

Reaction To Enemy Sniper Fire

Although the sniper team's mission is to eliminate the enemy sniper, the team avoids engaging in a sustained battle with the enemy sniper. If the team is pinned down by enemy sniper fire and the sniper's position cannot be determined, the sniper team attempts to break contact to vacate the enemy sniper's kill zone. a. The sniper team uses either hand-held or artillery generated smoke to obscure the enemy sniper's view. If the smoke provides sufficient obscuration, the sniper team breaks contact and calls for indirect fire on the enemy sniper position. If the smoke does not provide sufficient obscuration, the sniper team calls for an immediate suppression mission against the enemy sniper position. The team then breaks contact under the cover of indirect fire. b. The sniper team should expect indirect fire and increased enemy patrolling activity shortly after contact with an enemy sniper.

Section Iv Sniper Data Book

The sniper data book contains a collection of data cards. The sniper uses the data cards to record firing results and all elements that had an effect on firing the weapon. This can vary from information about weather conditions to the attitude of the firer on that particular day. The sniper can refer to this information later to understand his weapon, the weather effects, and his shooting ability on a given day. One of the most important items of information he will record is the cold barrel zero of his weapon. A cold barrel zero refers to the first round fired from the weapon at a given range. It is critical that the sniper shoots the first round daily at different ranges. For example, Monday, 400 meters Tuesday, 500 meters Wednesday, 600 meters. When the barrel warms up, later shots begin to group one or two minutes higher or lower, depending on specific rifle characteristics. Information is recorded on DA Form 5785-R (Sniper's Data Card) (Figure 3-23). (A blank copy of this form is...

Sniper Team Movement And Navigation

Due to lack of personnel and firepower, the sniper team cannot afford detection by the enemy nor can it successfully fight the enemy in sustained engagements. a. When possible, the sniper team should be attached to a security element (squad platoon). The security element allows the team to reach its area of operations quicker and safer than the team operating alone. Plus, the security element provides the team a reaction force should the team be detected. Snipers use the following guidelines when attached to a security element (2) The sniper team always appears as an integral part of the element. (3) The sniper team wears the same uniform as the element members. (4) The sniper team maintains proper intends and positions in all formations. (5) The sniper weapon system is carried in line and close to the body, hiding its outline and barrel length. (6) All equipment that is unique to sniper teams is concealed from view (optics, ghillie suits, and so forth). b. Once in the area of...

NOTE Trainers designate situations and critique sniper teams on movement

CONDITIONS Given a review of range estimation techniques used by snipers. techniques used by the sniper. TASK 7 Prepare a sniper range card. CONDITIONS Given a review of sniper range cards, a suitable target area, basic sniper equipment, and a sniper range card. STANDARDS Prepare a sniper range card complete with CONDITIONS Given a review of sniper military sketching, a suitable area or object to sketch, and a blank military sketch sheet. TASK 9 Maintain a sniper data book. CONDITIONS Given a review of the sniper data book and 20 blank sheets stapled together as a booklet. STANDARDS Maintain a sniper data book with a chronological listing of events that take place during the next three days and containing the following

Appendix B M21 Sniper Weapon System

The National Match M14 rifle (Figure B-1) and its scope makeup the M21 sniper weapon system. The M21 is accurized IAW United States Army Marksmanship Training Unit specifications and has the same basic design and operation as the standard M14 rifle (FM 23-8), except for specially selected and hand-fitted parts. Section I M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM

Sniper Mission Insertion Equipment

Ghillie Sniper


Section I M24 Sniper Weapon System

M24 Sniper Weapon System Parts

The M24 sniper weapon system is a 7.62-mm, bolt-action, six-shot repeating rifle (one round in the chamber and five rounds in the magazine). It is designed for use with either the M3A telescope (day optic sight) (usually called the M3A scope) or the metallic iron sights. The sniper must know the M24's components, and the procedures required to operate them (Figure 2-1, page 2-2). The deployment kit is a repair maintenance kit with tools and repair parts for the operator to perform operator level maintenance (Figure 2-2, page 2-3.)

Aval Special Warfare Basic Sniper Training Syllabus

Tie primary mission of the SEAL scout sniper in combat is to support combat operations by delivering percision fire on selected targets from concealed postions, The SEAL sniper also has a secondary mission of gathering information for intelligence purposes. The future combat operations that would most likely involve Naval Special Warfare would be low intensity type combat operations that would employ SEAL personnel in the gathering of information for future military operations or the surgical removal of military targets and personnal with a minimal assult force with no lost of life to civilan personnel, this is the ideal mission profile tD employ snipers due to their advanced field skills,marksmanship and their ablity to operate independently in a field environment.

Planning And Preparation Of A Sniper Mission

The purpose of this lesson plan is to ensure that all Special Warfare scout snipers pocess the ability to plan, prepare and carry out a assigned sniper mission. All aspects of planning and preparation of a sniper mission are contained in this lesson plan, from the sniper employment officer's responsibilities to the sniper team's responsibilities in planning, preparing, and executing a mission. A sniper patrol is always tailored for the mission it is to execute. 1. DEFINITION. A sniper mission is a detachment of one or more sniper teams performing an assigned mission of engaging selected targets and targets of opportunity, and collecting and reporting information, or a combination of these, which contribute to the acccmplishment of Naval Special Warfare's mission. 2. SNIPER EMPLOYMENT OFFICER. The responsibilities of the employment officer (usually XO, OPs, Intelligence Officer, SEAL platoon ccmnanders) are a. Issuance of necessary orders to the sniper team leader. f. Advising...

M24 Sniper Miles Training

MILES training is an invaluable tool to simulate realistic combat training. Other than actual combat, the sniper's best means of displaying effectiveness as a force multiplier is through the use of the M24 sniper weapon system (MILES). a. Characteristics of the MILES Transmitter. The M24 sniper weapon system MILES transmitter is a modified M16 transmitter. A special mounting bracket attaches the laser transmitter to the right side of the barrel (looking from the butt end) of the M24 and places it parallel with the line of bore. The laser beam output has been amplified and tightened to provide precision fire capability out to 1,000 meters. (For component information and instructions on mounting, zeroing, and operation, see TM 9-1265-211-10.) (1) Selection offeringpositions. ue to transmitter modifications, the sniper must attain a firing position that affords clear fields of fire. Any obstruction (vegetation, terrain) can prevent a one-shot kill by deflecting or blocking the path of...

Sniper Sustainment Training

Wind Estimation Sniper

Repetitive training in long-range markmanship and field-craft skills ensures the best probability of effective engagement and the minimum risk of detection. Snipers must sustain basic soldier skills and master and sustain critical mission skills to accomplish their objectives. Both sniper and observer are trained snipers and should be highly skilled in the art of sniping. Sniping skills perish quickly therefore, sniper teams must sustain and sharpen those skills regularly. To deny the importance and need to sustain sniper training deprives the commander of a valuable asset. This chapter also includes a 5-day sniper sustainment training program. Due to the primary and secondary missions of the sniper, minimum skill sustainment should include observation, range estimation, concealment, concealed movement, and rifle firing. Sustainment of these skills may best be accomplished through sniper training exercises and unit-level live-fire exercises. (DA Pamphlet 350-38 outlines the frequency...

Primary Sniper Weapons Of The World

Several countries have developed sniper weapon systems comparable to the United States systems. These weapon systems are sold to or copied by countries throughout the world. Within the everchanging world of politics, it is impossible to predict how the future enemy may be armed. The designs and capabilities of these weapon systems are sirnilar. However, the amount of training and experience separates the sniper the marksman. This appendix describes the characteristics and capabilities of prevalent sniper weapon systems.

Sniper Equipment

The sniper rifle used by Naval Special Warfare is a bolt action, 7.62mm rifle with a stainless steel barrel for improved accuracy. It weighs anywhere from 9*5 lbs to 12 lbs depending on the type stock used. The stocks vary in weight frcm 1 lb. 10 oz. to 3 lbs plus, and are constructed from fiberglass. The rifle is fitted with a topmounted telescope base, to which the sniper scope can be readily attached without special tools. 1. The optical system. Is composed of a series of glass lenses which transmit and magnify the image of the target to the sniper.

Combat Shooting

Instinctive Combat Crouch

What is meant by close-quartcr combat shooting It is a matter of record that the average hand gun shooting affray takes place at a distance not exceeding 20 feet. Any distance not exceeding 40 feet can be considered as close quarters in the combat use of the pistol or revolver. Beyond that distance the capabilities of the average individual and of the weapon show a marked decline. A study of the records of military and police combat use of hand guns shows that use of these weapons falls into one of the following categories, listed in the order of frequency The training and combat shooting techniques described below have stood the test of recent battle and are based on results achieved by all categories of troops in all imaginable close-combat situations. Combat Firing vs. Target Shooting. Three basic differences exist between combat firing and target shooting (1) In close combat work, the sights will not ordinarily be used, due to lack of time, darkness or poor light conditions, enemy...

Sniper Data Book

The sniper data book is a written, chronological record of all activities and events that take place in a sniper team's area. It is used with military sketches and range cards this combination not only gives commanders and intelligence personnel information about the appearance of the area, but it also provides an accurate record of the activity in the area. Information is recorded on DA Form 5786-R (Sniper's Observation Log) (Figure 4-25). (A blank copy of this form is in the back of this publication for local reproduction.) Information in the observation log includes (Completion of this form is self-explanatory.)

Sniper Training

Sniper and Observer Responsibilities 1-5 Section I. M24 Sniper Weapon System 2-1 Section III. Sniper Sighting Devices 2-22 2-17. Other Sniper Equipment 2-40 Section IV. Sniper Data Book 3-36 4-9. Sniper team Movement and Navigation 4-11 of Sniper Positions 4-14 4-28. Sniper Data Book 4-46 5-14. Reaction to Enemy Sniper Fire 5-13 CHAPTER 9. SNIPER SUSTAINMENT TRAINING 9-4. Example 5-day Sniper Sustainment 9-7. M24 Sniper MILES H-aining 9-40 APPENDIX A. SNIPER WEAPONS OF THE WORLD A-l APPENDIX B. M21 SNIPER WEAPON SYSTEM B-l

Looke t how to man an OP and what special equipment you might need to

In the discussion of hostage situations we examined the accuracy requirements and the position selection considerations cannon to all terrorist environments. Vie also discussed the command and control procedures for employing snipers in this type of role. 2. Remotivate. Remember, its not outside the realm of possibility that someday you or scmeone you've trained could find himself in this type of situation. At that time you'll take the test let's hope we have no failures, because the political and social repercussions are too great a price to pay for one sniper who didn't prepare himself to put that one round on target.

Never Remove The Trigger Mechanism Or Make Adjustments To The Trigger Assembly Except For The Trigger Pull Force

Pulling the trigger fires the rifle when the safety is in the F position. The operator may adjust the trigger pull force from a minimum of 2 pounds to a maximum of 8 pounds. This is done using the l 16-inch socket head screw key provided in the deployment kit. Turning the trigger adjustment screw (Figure 2-6) clockwise increases the force needed to pull the trigger. Turning it counterclockwise decreases the force needed. This is the only trigger adjustment the sniper should make. (2) To adjust the sling, the sniper disconnects the sling from the buttstock swivel. Then, he adjusts the length of the metal D ring that joins (3) The sniper adjusts the length of the sling by placing the frog on the long strap of the sling in the 4th to the 7th set of adjustment holes on the rounded end of the long strap that goes through the sling swivel on the forearm (Figure 2-10). (4) After adjusting the length, the sniper places the weapon on his firing weapon with his firing arm....

Opportunity For Questions Summary

During this period of instruction we discussed position selection and the two factors necessary to all positions (1) Provides maximum fields of observation and fire to the sniper. (2) It provides maximum concealment frcm enemy observation. 2. Remotivate. How well the sniper team accomplishes the mission depends, to a large degree, on their knowledge, understanding, and application of the various field techniques or skills that allows them to move, hide, observe, and detect. These skills are a measure of the sniper*s ability to survive.

M16a1a2 Rifle With M203 Grenade Launcher

The observer carries the M16A1 A2 rifle with the M203 grenade launcher. The sniper, carrying the M24 SWS, lacks the firepower required to break contact with enemy forces-that is, ambush or chance contact. The rapid-fire ability of the M16A1 A2 rifle, combined with the destructive abilities ofthe M203 40-mm grenade launcher (Figure 2-25), gives the sniper team a lightweight, easily operated way to deliver the firepower required to break contact. (See FM 23-9 and FM 23-31, respectively, for the technical characteristics of these weapons.)

Image Intensification And Infrared Devices

The sniper team employs night and limited visibility devices to conduct continuous operations. nightsight's limited range does not make its use practical for the sniper weapon system. This avoids problems that may occur when removing and replacing the sniperscope. The nightsight provides an effective observation ability during night combat operations. The sight does not give the width, depth, or clarity of daylight vision however, a well-trained operator can see enough to analyze the tactical situation, to detect enemy targets, and to place effective fire on them. The sniper team uses the AN PVS-4 to accomplish the following (3) Zeroing. The operator may zero the sight during daylight or darkness however, he may have some difficulty in zeroing just l before darkness. The light level at dusk is too low to permit the operator to resolve his zero target with the lens cap cover in place, but it is still intense enough to cause the sight to automatically turnoff unless the lens cap cover...

Litton Model M845 Night Vision Weapons Sight

In order the SEAL sniper to engage targets during hours of limited visibility, he must use a night vision device. This period of instruction will provide you with the knowledge necessary to mount, put into operation, zero, and maintain the M-845 night vision device.

Effects Of Temperature

Temperature affects the firer, ammunition, and density of the air. When ammunition sits in direct sunlight, the bum rate of powder is increased, resulting in greater muzzle velocity and higher impact. The greatest effect is on the density of the air. As the temperature rises, the air density is lowered. Since there is leas resistance, velocity increases and once again the point of impact rises. This is in relation to the temperature at which the rifle was zeroed, If the sniper zeros at 50 degrees and he is now firing at 90 degrees, the point of impact rises considerably. How high it rises is best determined once again by past firing recorded in the sniper data book. The general role, however, is that when the rifle is zeroed, a 20-degree increase in temperature will raise the point of impact by one minute conversely, a 20-degree decrease will drop the point of impact by one minute.

Section Vii Nuclear Biological Chemical

Performance of long-range precision fire is difficult at best. Enemy NBC warfare creates new problems for the sniper. Not only must the sniper properly execute the fundamentals of marksmanship and contend with the forces of nature, he must overcome obstacles presented by protective equipment. Testing conducted by the US Army Sniper School, Fort Benning, GA during 1989 to 1990 uncovered several problem areas. Evaluation of this testing discovered ways to help the sniper overcome these problems while firing in an NBC environment.

Missionoriented Protection Posture

When gloves are worn, the sniper cannot determine the amount of pressure he is applying to the trigger. This is of particular importance if the sniper has the trigger adjusted for a light pull. 'Raining with a glove will be beneficial however, the trigger should be adjusted to allow the sniper to feel the trigger without accidental discharge. (2) Stock drag. While training, the sniper should have his observer watch his trigger finger to ensure that the finger and glove are not touching any part of the rifle but the trigger. The glove or finger resting on the trigger guard moves the rifle as the trigger is pulled to the rear. The sniper must wear a well-fitted glove. c. Vertical Sight Picture. The sniper naturally cants the rifle into the cheek of the face while firing with a protective mask. d. Sniper Observer Communications. The absence of a voice emitter on the M2S-series protective mask creates an obstacle in relaying information. The team either speaks louder...

Fieldexpedient Camouflage

The sniper team may have to use field-expedient camouflage if other means are not available. Instead of camouflage sticks or face paint, the team may use charcoal, walnut stain, mud, or whatever works. The team will not use oil or grease due to the strong odor. Natural vegetation can be attached to the body by boot bands or rubber bands or by cutting holes in the uniform. a. The sniper team also camouflages its equipment. However, the camouflage must not interfere with or hinder the operation of the equipment. (1) Rifles. The sniper weapon system and the M16 M203 should also. be camouflaged to break up their outlines. The sniper weapon system can be carried in a drag bag (Figure 4-2), which is a rifle case made of canvas and covered with garnish similar to the ghillie suit. (2) Optics. Optics used by the sniper team must also be camouflaged to breakup the outline and to reduce the possibility of light reflecting off the lenses. Lenses can be covered with mesh-type webbing or nylon...

Positions In Urban Terrain

Positions in urban terrain are quite different than positions in the field. The sniper team normally has several places to choose. These can range from inside attics to street-level positions in basements. This type of terrain is ideal for a sniper, and a sniper team can stop an enemy's advance through its area of responsibility. a. When constructing an urban position, the sniper team must be aware of the outside appearance of the structure. Shooting through loopholes in barricaded windows is preferred the team must make sure all other windows are also barricaded. Building loopholes in other windows also provides more positions to engage targets. When building loopholes, the team should make them different shapes (not perfect squares or circles). Dummy loopholes also confuse the enemy. Positions in attics are also effective. The team removes the shingles and cuts out loopholes in the roof however, they must make sure there are other shingles missing from the roof so the firing...

When Moving Through Sewers Teams Must Be Alert For Booby Traps And Poisonous Gases

In a room hide position, the sniper team uses an existing room and fires through a window or loophole (Figure 4-13). Weapon support may be achieved through the use of existing furniture-that is, desks or tables. When selecting a position, teams must notice both front and back window positions. To avoid. silhouetting, they may need to use a backdrop such as a dark-colored blanket, canvas, carpet, and a screen. Screens (common screening material) are important since they allow the sniper teams maximum observation and deny observation by the enemy. They must not. remove curtains however, they can open windows or remove panes of glass. Remember, teams can randomly remove panes in other windows so the position is not obvious. (2) Crawl space hide position. The sniper team builds a crawl space hide position in the space between floors in multistory buildings (Figure 4-14). Loopholes are difficult to construct, but a damaged building helps considerably. Escape routes...

Section Iv Observation

Throughout history, battles have been won and nations conquered based on an accurate accounting and description of the opposing forces strength, equipment, and location. As the sniper team performs the secondary mission of collecting and reporting battlefield intelligence, the commander can act, rather than react. The purpose of observation is to gather facts and to provide information for a specific intent. Observation uses all of the sniper team's five senses but often depends on sight and hearing. For example, the sniper team is issued a PIR or OIR for a specific mission. Information gathered by the sniper team is reported, analyzed, and processed into intelligence reports. The sniper team's success depends upon its powers of observation. In addition to the sniperscope, the sniper team has an observation telescope, binoculars,


Sniper The Wind

Sniper marksmanship is an extension of basic rifle marksmanship and focuses on the techniques needed to engage targets at extended ranges. To successfully engage targets at increased distances, the sniper team must be proficient in marksmanship fundamentals and advanced marksmanship skills. Examples of these skills are determining the effects of weather conditions on ballistics, holding off for elevation and windage, engaging moving targets, using and adjusting scopes, and zeroing procedures. Markmanship skills should be practiced often. The sniper team must be thoroughly trained in the fundamentals of marksmanship. These include assuming a position, aiming, breath control, and trigger control. These fundamentals develop fixed and correct firing habits for instinctive application. Every sniper should periodically refamiliarize himself with these fundamentals regardless of his experience. The sniper should assume a good firing position (Figure 3-1, page 3-2) in order to engage targets...

Elements Of Observation

A sniper team must always be aware of the surroundings and take nothing. for granted. The team also considers certain elements that influence and distort awareness. b. Understanding. Understanding is derived from education, training, practice, and experience. It enhances the sniper team's

Lock The Nonfiring Arm Straight Or The Face Will Absorb The Weapons Recoil

The Sniper

The sniper can make minor adjustments in muzzle elevation by tightening or relaxing the fist of the nonfiring hand. If more elevation is required, he can place a support under the nonfiring fist. d. Field-Expedient Weapon Support. Support of the weapon is critical to the sniper's success in engaging targets. Unlike a well-equipped firing range with sandbags for weapon support, the sniper can encounter situations where weapon support relies on common sense and imagination. The sniper should practice using these supports at every opportunity and select the one that best suits his needs. He must train as if in combat to avoid confusion and self-doubt. The following items are commonly used as field-expedient weapon supports (1) Sand sock. The sniper needs the sand sock when delivering precision fire at long ranges. He uses a standard issue, olive-drab wool sock filled one-half to three-quarters full of sand and knotted off. He places it under the rear sling swivel when in the prone...

How To Use The M49 Observation Telescope

Sniper Multi Target

Observing an area during darkness (Figure 2-27). The sniper normally carries the goggles, because the observer has the M16 mounted with the nightsight. The goggles make it easier to see due to their design. However, the same limitations that apply to the nightsight also apply to the goggles. d. Laser Observation Set AN GVS-5. Depending on the mission, snipers can use the AN GVS-5 to determine the range to the target. The AN GVS-5 (LR) (Figure 2-29, page 2-36) is an individually operated, hand-held, distance-measuring device designed for distances from 200 to 9,990 meters (with an error of plus or minus 10 meters). It measures distances by firing an infrared beam at a target and by measuring the time the reflected beam takes to return to the operator. It then displays the target distance, in meters, inside the viewer. The reticle pattern in the viewer is graduated in 10-mil increments and has display lights to indicate low battery and multiple target hits. If the beam hits more than...

Movement To Target Area

After leaving the insertion site, the sniper team transmits an initial entry report as required by unit SOP. This report ensures operable radio equipment and provides the team's status at the same time. b. Movement Interval. The interval between sniper team members may vary during movement into the target area. It is based on visibility, terrain, and enemy disposition. The team keys movement to the following rules, which should be discussed in detail in the sniper SOP. (5) Ensure the sniper team leader positions himself to the rear of the observer. c. Movement Security. Each sniper team member must be security conscious, maintaining constant all-round security. During movement, each team member is responsible for an assigned security sector. The sniper team's route makes the best use of cover and concealment, and security or listening halts are made, as needed. Personal and equipment camouflage is enforced at all times. d. Arm-and-Hand Signals. The sniper establishes standard...

Occupation Of Position

The tentative final firing position, ORP, and route are selected during the mission planning phase by map and aerial photograph reconnaissance. The sniper team moves close to the TFFP and sets up an objective rally point. It then moves forward to search for a TFFP, ensuring the site is suitable and the target area can be observed at ground level. At this point, the TFFP becomes an FFP. Reconnaissance should be made during limited visibility. The team returns to the ORP, secures all mission-essential equipment, and moves to the FFP and occupies it. The sniper team watches and listens for the enemy before constructing the hide position (METT-T dependent).

Evasion And Escape Plan

Individual abilities, training of sniper team members, and supporting air or boat crews. The following general rules apply to evasion and escape plans for sniper operations b. When sniper teams are behind enemy lines, the most successful escapes may involve air or water movement away from enemy-held territory. (2) Phase two occurs near the target area. It allows the sniper team to pursue its mission with a reasonable chance of success. d. The sniper team may be required to hide for several days to allow the enemy to become complacent before the team tries to move. e. In selecting extraction sites, the sniper considers the danger of compromising other activities. He must prepare alternate plans for unforeseen developments.

Air Or Water Extraction

(1) Helicopter landing is the best method since the sniper team and its equipment can board the helicopter quickly. (2) The troop ladder is the second best method. It lets sniper team members board the helicopter, but the helicopter can liftoff while snipers are still on the ladder. (3) The STABO extraction system allows rapid pickup of one to four soldiers, who are suspended on lines beneath the helicopter. Soldiers are picked up and moved to an area where the helicopter can land. The sniper team then boards the helicopter.


When a sniper follows a trail, he builds a picture of the enemy in his mind by asking himself questions How many persons am I following What is their state of training How are they equipped Are they healthy What is their state of morale Do they know they are being followed To answer these questions, the sniper uses available indicators to track the enemy. The sniper looks for signs that reveal an action occurred at a specific time and place. For example, a footprint in soft sand is an excellent indicator, since a sniper can determine the specific time the person passed By comparing indicators, the sniper obtains answers to his questions. For example, a footprint and a waist-high scuff on a tree may indicate that an armed individual passed this way.

Immediateuse Intelligence

The sniper combines all indicators and interprets what he has seen to form a composite picture for on-the-spot intelligence. For example, indicators may show contact is imminent and require extreme stealth. a. The sniper avoids reporting his interpretations as facts. He reports what he has seen rather than stating these things exist. There are many ways a sniper can interpret the sex and size of the party, the load, and the type of equipment. Timeframes can be determined by weathering effects on indicators. the area. Therefore, a sniper who interprets trail signs and reports that he is 30 minutes behind a known enemy unit, moving north, and located at a specific location, gives the commander information on which he can act at once.

Doghandler Tracking Teams

Dog handler tracking teams are a threat to the sniper team. While small and lightly armed, they can increase the area that a rear area security unit can search. Due to the dog handler tracking team's effectiveness and its lack of firepower, a sniper team may be tempted to destroy such an easy target. Whether a sniper should fight or run depends on the situation and the sniper. Eliminating or injuring the dog handler tracking team only confirms that there is a hostile team operating in the area. a. When looking for sniper teams, trackers use wood line sweeps and area searches. A wood line sweep consists of walking the dog upwind of a suspected wood line or brush line. If the wind is blowing through the woods and out of the wood line, trackers move 50 to 100 meters inside a wooded area to sweep the wood's edge. Since wood line sweeps tend to be less specific, trackers perform them Taster. An area search is used when a team's location is specific such as a small wooded area or block of...

Additional Skills Sustainment

Other than basic skills, the trainer must include additional skills into the sniper sustainment training program. Once mastered, these skills enhance the sniper's chance of surviving and accomplishing the mission. a. Call for Fire. With advanced camouflage and movement techniques, snipers can move about the battlefield undetected. Snipers that have a working knowledge in the use and application of artillery, NGF, and CAS will bean asset to the commander. (See FM 6-30.) (1) Artillery fire. Artillery fire is the secondary weapon of the sniper. Each sniper should master call-for-fire procedures (Figure 9-7, page 9-16), target location methods (Figure 9-8, page 9-17), and indirect-weapon system capabilities (Table 9-1, page 9-19). Separate radio stations may beset up with one being a simulated FDC. After the FDC receives the call for fire, it determines how the target will be attacked. That decision is announced to the FO as a message to the observer, which consists of three elements as...

Conduct Of The Exercise

The purpose of the memory exercise is to teach the sniper student to observe and remember a number of unrelated objects. In combat, the sniper brequires a good memory in order to report facts accurately, because he may not be in a postion to write them down. The Kim's game is to help the student in observation techniques. The better he does on the Kim's games, the more confident he will be during the observation exercises.

B3 Care And Maintance

Extreme care has been used in building the sniper rifle. A similar degree of attention must be devoted to its daily care and maintenance. a. The rifle should not be disassembled by the sniper for normal cleaning and lubrication. Disassembly is performed only by the armorer during the scheduled inspections or repair. The armorer thoroughly cleans and lubricates the rifle at that time. To load the M21, the sniper locks the bolt to the rear and places the weapon in the SAFE position. He inserts the magazine into the magazine well by pushing up, then pulling the bottom of the magazine to the rear until the magazine catch gives an audible click. To chamber a round, the sniper pulls the bolt slightly to the rear to release the bolt catch, then releases the bolt. To unload the M21, he locks the bolt to the rear and places the weapon in the SAFE position. Then he depresses the magazine release latch, and moves the magazine in a forward and downward motion at the same time.

Section II M21 Sighting Devices

A scope mounted on the rifle allows the sniper to detect and engage targets more effectively. The target's image in the scope is in focus with the aiming point (reticle). This allows for a more focused picture of the target and aiming point at the same time. Another advantage of the scope is its ability to magnify the target. This increases the resolution of the target's image, making it clearer and more defined. Keep in mind, a scope does not make a soldier a better sniper, it only helps him to see better.

B8 Art I And Art Ii Scopes

The ART has a commercially procured 3- to 9-variable-power telescopic scopesight, modified for use with the sniper rifle. This scope has a modified reticle with a ballistic earn mounted to the power adjustment ring on the ART I (Figure B-4). The ART II (Figure B-5) has a separate ballistic cam and power ring. The ART is mounted on a spring-loaded base mount that is adaptedto fit the M14. It is transported in a hard carrying case when not mounted to the rifle. The scopes on the M21 sniper weapon system can also be used for rough range estimation. Once the sniper team is familiar with the M21 and is accustomed to ranging out on targets, it makes a mental note of where the power adjust ring is set at various distances. sniper to seethe target clearly. (3) When turning the power ring to adjust the target's image to the reticle, the sniper is also turning the ballistic cam. This raises or lowers the scope itself to compensate for elevation. Therefore, once the scope's magnification is...

Individual Movement Techniques

Sniper High Crawl

The individual movement techniques used by the sniper team are designed to allow movement without being detected. These movement techniques are sniper low crawl, medium crawl, high crawl, hand-and-knees crawl, and walking. a. Sniper Low Crawl. The sniper low crawl (Figure 4-3) is used when concealment is extremely limited, when close to the enemy, or when occupying a firing position. Figure 4-3. Sniper low crawl, Figure 4-3. Sniper low crawl, b. Medium Crawl. The medium crawl (Figure 4-4) is used when concealment is limited and the team needs to move faster-than the sniper low crawl allows. The medium crawl is similar to the infantryman's low crawl. c. High Crawl. The high crawl (Figure 4-5) is used when concealment is limited but high enough to allow the sniper to raise his body off the ground. The high crawl is similar to the infantry high crawl. d. Hand-and-knees Crawl. The hand-and-knees crawl (Figure 4-6) is used when some concealment is available and the sniper team needs to...

Correcting For Environmental Factors

In the case of the highly trained sniper, effects of the weather are a primary cause of error in the strike of the bullet. The wind, mirage, light, temperature, and humidity all have effects on the bullet, the sniper, or both. Sane effects are insignificant depending on the average conditions of sniper employment. However, sniping is accomplished under extreme of weather and therefore all effects must be considered. The observation telescope will not only assist you in detecting well camouflaged targets, it may also be used to read mirage. This two hour conference will provide you with the necessary information to compensate for the effects of wind and weather and to properly use the observation telescope. a. Training Objective. To enable the sniper to explain the effects of wind and weather on the strike of the bullet and how to compensate for these effects and use the observation telescope in accordance with TC 23-14.

This paragraph complies with Stanag 2022

The sniper team uses the SPOTREP to report intelligence information. Each report normally describe a single observed event. When reporting groups of enemy vehicles, personnel report the location of the center of mass or indicate from to coordinates. Higher headquarters sets the SPOTREP format, but the report usually follows the SALUTE format. The sniper team submits the SITREP to higher headquarters to report tactical situations and status. The team submits the report daily by 0600 hours after significant events or as otherwise required by the SEO or commander. The sender says, SITREP, to alert the receiver of the type of report being sent. The following explains the reporting format according to line number When the sniper team knows or suspects that the enemy is jamming, or knows or suspects that the enemy is intruding on the net, the incident is reported immediately by secure means to higher headquarter. Such information is vital for the protection and defense of friendly radio...

Hasty And Detailed Searches

Hasty Search Sniper

While observing a target area, the sniper team alternately conducts two types of visual searches hasty and detailed. b. After a hasty search has been completed, the observer then conducts a detailed search of the area. A detailed search is a closer, more thorough search of the target area, using 180-degree area or sweeps, 50 meters in depth, and overlapping each previous sweep at least 10 meters to ensure the entire area has been observed (Figure 4-16, page 4-30). Like the hasty search, the observer begins by searching the area closest to the sniper team position. c. This cycle of a hasty search followed by a detailed search should be repeated three or four times. This allows the sniper team to become accustomed to the area plus, the team will look closer at various points with each consecutive pass over the area. After the initial searches, the observer should view the area, using a combination of both hasty and detailed searches. While the observer conducts the initial searches of...

Body A Mehtods Of Range Estimation

To use this method, the sniper must be able to visualize a distance of 100 meters on the ground. For ranges up to 500 meters, he c. Attaining Proficiency. To become proficient with this method of range estimation, the sniper must measure off several 100 meter courses on different types of terrain, and then, by walking over these courses several times, determines the average number of paces required to cover the 100m of the various terrains. He can then practice estimation by walking over un-mesured terrain, counting his paces, and marking off 100m increments. Looking back over his trail, he can study the appearance of the successive increments. Conversely, he can estimate the distance to a given point, walk to it counting his paces, and thus check his accuracy. be 1 inch high, 2 inches wide, with about inch between the headlights. Then, any time he saw oncoming vehicles that fit these dimensions, he would know that they were about 1 Km away. This same technique can be...

Types And Characteristics

The types and characteristics of sniper ammunition are described in this paragraph. b. M82 Blank Ammunition. The 7.62-mm M82 blank ammunition is used during sniper field training. It provides the muzzle blast and flash that can be detected by trainers during the exercises that evaluate the sniper's ability to conceal himself while firing his weapon. The sniper maintains a log of the number of cartridge fired through the M24 SWS. It is imperative to accurately maintain the round-count book as the barrel should be replaced after 5,000 rounds of firing. The round-count book is issued and maintained in the arms room.

Construction And Adjustment

Sniper teams may use the following methods to construct and a. Construction. The best kinds of wire for antennas are copper and aluminum. In an emergency, however, snipers use any type of wire that (2) Antennas supported by trees can usually survive heavy wind storms if the trunk of a tree or a strong branch is used as a support. To keep the antenna taut and to prevent it from breaking or stretching as the trees sway, the sniper attaches a spring or old inner tube to one end of the antenna. Another technique is to pass a rope through a pulley or eyehook. The rope is attached to the end of the antenna and loaded with a heavyweight to keep the antenna tightly drawn. (3) Guidelines used to hold antenna supports are made of rope or wire. To ensure the guidelines will not affect the operation of the antenna, the sniper cuts the wire into several short lengths and connects the pieces with insulators. (1) A distant station may be used to test the antenna. If the signal received from this...

Movement To Extraction Site

Movement to a planned extraction site will be necessary in many operations. The sniper team must observe the principles of route selection and movement security. a. Priorities. The time that a sniper team remains beyond the FFL depends on its mission and equipment. The extraction is critical from a standpoint of morale and mission accomplishment. Plans for extraction by air, ground, or water are made before the operation, with alternate plans for contingencies such as the evacuation of sick or injured personnel. During the mission, the sniper may be faced with an unforeseen situation that may demand the utmost in flexibility, discipline, and leadership. b. Code Words. Each sniper team is given code words in the OPORD for use during extraction. For example, one code word may mean that the team is at its pickup zone. Another may mean that both the primary and alternate pickup zones are compromised and to abort the extraction. c. No Communication. When a sniper team has missed a certain...

Field Techniques

The primary mission of the sniper team is to eliminate selected enemy targets with long-range precision fire. How well the sniper accomplishes his mission depends on knowledge, understanding and application of various field techniques that allow him to move, hide, observe, and detect targets. This chapter discusses the field techniques and skills that the sniper must learn before employment in support of combat operations. The sniper's application of these skills will affect his survival on the battlefield.

Preparation For Debriefing

After the mission, the SEO or S3 representative directs the sniper team to an area where they prepare for a debriefing. The team remains in the area until called to the operations center. The sniper will bring the sniper data book that contains a log sheet, a field sketch, a range card, and a road area sketch for debriefing. a. The sniper team b. An S3 representative controls the debriefing. He directs the sniper c. When the debriefing is complete, the S3 representative releases the sniper team back to platoon control.

Integrated Act Of Firing

Once the sniper has been taught the fundamentals of marksmanship, his primary concern is his ability to apply it in the performance of his mission. An effective method of applying fundamentals is through the use of the integrated act of firing one round. The integrated act is a logical, step-by-step development of fundamentals whereby the sniper can develop habits that enable him to fire each shot the same way. The integrated act of firing can be divided into four distinct phases a. Preparation Phase. Before departing the preparation area, the sniper ensures that (c) Zero-sighted systems and recorded data in the sniper data book. b. Before-Firing Phase. On arrival at the mission site, the team exercises care in selecting positions. The sniper ensures the selected positions support the mission. During this phase, the sniper c. Firing Phase. Upon detection, or if directed to a suitable target, the sniper makes appropriate sight changes, aims, and tells the observer he is ready to fire....

Cover And Concealment

The proper understanding and application of the principles of cover and concealment used with the proper application of camouflage protects the sniper team from enemy observation. a. Cover is natural or artificial protection from the fire of enemy weapons. Natural cover (ravines, hollows, reverse slopes) and artificial cover (fighting positions, trenches, walls) protect the sniper team from flat trajectory fires and partly protect it from high-angle fires and the effects of nuclear explosions. Even the smallest depression or fold in the ground may provide some cover when the team needs it most. A 6-inch depression, properly used, may provide enough cover to save the sniper team under fire. Snipers must always look for and take advantage of all the cover that the terrain provides. By combining this habit with proper movement techniques, the team can protect itself from enemy fire. To get protection from enemy fire when moving, the team uses routes that put cover between itself and the...

Effects On Trajectory

To be effective, the sniper must know marksmanship fundamentals and what effect gravity and drag will have on those fundamentals. a. Gravity. As soon as the bullet exits the muzzle of the weapon, gravity begins to pull it down, requiring the sniper to use his elevation adjustment. At extended ranges, the sniper actually aims the muzzle of his rifle above his line of sight and lets gravity pull the bullet down into the target. Gravity is always present, and the sniper must compensate for this through elevation adjustments or hold-off techniques. (1) Temperature. The higher the temperature, the less dense the air. (See Section III.) If the sniper zeros at 60 degrees F and he fires at 80 degrees, the air is leas dense, thereby causing an increase in muzzle velocity and higher point of impact. A 20-degree change equals a one-minute elevation change in the strike of the bullet. (3) Humidity. Humidity varies along with the altitude and temperature. Figure 3-19 considers the changes in...

Personnel Selection Criteria

Candidates for sniper training require careful screening. Commanders must screen the individual's records for potential aptitude as a sniper. The rigorous training program and the increased personal risk in combat require high motivation and the ability to learn a variety of skills. Aspiring snipers must have an excellent personal record. a. The basic guidelines used to screen sniper candidates are as follows (1) Marksmanship. The sniper trainee must be an expert marksman. Repeated annual qualification as expert is necessary. Successful participation in the annual competition-in-arms program and an extensive hunting background also indicate good sniper potential. (2) Physical condition. The sniper, often employed in extended operations with little sleep, food, or water, must be in outstanding physical condition. Good health means better reflexes, better muscular control, and greater stamina. The self-confidence and control that come from athletics, especially team sports, are definite...


The primary mission of a sniper in combat is to support combat operations by delivering precise long-range fire on selected targets. By this, the sniper creates casualties among enemy troops, slows enemy movement, frightens enemy soldiers, lowers morale, and adds confusion to their operations. The secondary mission of the sniper is collecting and reporting battlefield information. a. A well-trained sniper, combined with the inherent accuracy of his rifle and ammunition, is a versatile supporting arm available to an infantry commander. The importance of the sniper cannot be measured simply by the number of casualties he inflicts upon the enemy. Realization of the sniper's presence instills fear in enemy troop elements and influences their decisions and actions. A sniper enhances a unit's firepower and augments the varied means for destruction and harassment of the enemy. Whether a sniper is organic or attached, he will provide that unit with extra supporting fire. The sniper's role is...


In light infantry divisions, the sniper element is composed of six battalion personnel organized into three 2-man teams. The commander designates missions and priorities of targets for the team and may attach or place the team under the operational control of a company or platoon. They may perform dual missions, depending on the need. In the mechanized infantry battalions, the sniper element is composed of two riflemen (one team) located in a rifle squad. In some specialized units, snipers may be organized according to the needs of the tactical situation. a. Sniper teams should be centrally controlled by the commander or the sniper employment officer. The SEO is responsible for the command and control of snipers assigned to the unit. In light infantry units, the SEO will be the reconnaissance platoon leader or the platoon sergeant. In heavy or mechanized units, the SEO may be the company commander or the executive officer. The duties and responsibilities of the SEO areas follows (1)...


Gain Attention, imagine Special Warfare suddenly committed to a peace keeping force such as in Beirut, Lebanon. Or, imagine being committed to preserve the peace and protect innocent lives and property in an urban environment such as Detroit or Watts during a Big City riot. What is the role of the sniper Is the sniper a valid weapon for employment in situations like this 2. The answer is most emphatically, yes' We have only to look around us to see examples of how effective the sniper can be in this type of situation. Probably the best examples available to us are two recent .British involvements Aden and Northern Ireland. In both cases the sniper has played a significant role in the successful British peace keeping efforts. Remember, that one of the key principles of crowd control peace keeping is the use of only minimum force. The sniper with his selective target identification and engagement with that one well aimed shot is one of the best examples of the use of minimum force. a....


The sniper, having decided upon an area of operation, must chose a specific spot frcm which to operate. The sniper must not forget that a position which appears to him as an obvious and ideal location for a sniper will also appear as such to the enemy. He should avoid the obvious positions and stay away from prominent, readily a. It provides maximum fields of observation and fire to the sniper. 2. Hasty Positions. Due to the limited nature of most sniper missions and the requirement to stalk and kill, the sniper team will in most cases utilize a hasty post. Considering the fundamentals of camouflage and concealment the team can acquire a hasty sniper post in any terrain. (TA) The principle involved when assuming a hasty position is to utilize a maximum of the team's ability to blend with the background or terrain and utilize shadows at all times. Utilizing the proper camouflage techniques, while selecting the proper position from which to observe and shoot, the...


The sniper performs PMCS on the M24 SWS. Deficiencies that cannot be repaired Dy the sniper requires manufacturer repair. He must refer to TM 9-1005-306-10 that is furnished with each weapon system. The sniper must know this technical manual. He should cheek the following areas when inspecting the M24


The fourth area covered was concealment during movement and how to use terrain features. We learned the difference in hiding, blending, and deceiving, and how to use each. We learned of the danger of enemy scouts or trackers, and the importance of leaving no indication of one's presence while on a mission. Lastly, we covered what a sniper can leam from enemy tracks if he is observant enough to see them and takes the time to learn their meaning. 2. Rgrotivate. The job of a sniper is not for a person who just wants the prestige of being called a sniper. It is a very dangerous position even if the sniper is well trained and highly motivated. Expertise at camouflage to remain unnoticed takes painstaking care, and thoroughness which the wrong type of individual would not take time to do. If you are to be successful at camouflage and concealment, it takes a double portion in carefulness on your part, if you are to cane back alive. a. Concealed Approaches. It is essential that the natural...

Trigger Control

Trigger control is the most important of the sniper marksmanship fundamentals. It is defined as causing the rifle to fire when the sight picture is at its best, without causing the rifle to move. Trigger squeeze is uniformly increasing pressure straight to the rear until the rifle fires. a. Proper trigger control occurs when the sniper places his firing finger as low on the trigger as possible and still clears the trigger guard, thereby achieving maximum mechanical advantage and movement of the finger to the entire rifle. b. The sniper maintains trigger control beat by assuming a stable position, adjusting on the target, and beginning a breathing cycle. As the sniper exhales the final breath toward a natural respiratory pause, he secures his finger on the trigger. As the front blade or reticle settles at the desired point of aim, and the natural respiratory pause is entered, the sniper applies initial pressure. He increases the tension on the trigger during the respiratory pause as...


Follow-through is the act of continuing to apply all the sniper marksmanship fundamentals as the weapon fires as well as immediately after it fires. It consists of b. A good follow-through ensures the weapon is allowed to fire and recoil naturally. The sniper rifle combination reacts as a single unit to such actions.

Calling The Shot

Calling the shot is being able to tell where the round should impact on the target. Because live targets invariably move when hit, the sniper will find it almost impossible to use his scope to locate the target after the round is fired. Using iron sights, the sniper will find that searching for a downrange hit is beyond his abilities. He must be able to accurately call a. With iron sights, the final focus point should be on the top edge of the front sight blade. The blade is the only part of the sight picture that is moving (in the wobble area). Focusing on it aids in calling the shot and detecting any errors insight alignment or sight picture. Of course, lining up the sights and the target initially requires the sniper to shift his focus from the target to the blade and back until he is satisfied that he is properly aligned with the target. This shifting exposes two more facts about eye focus. The eye can instantly shift focus from near objects (the blade) to far objects (the...

M19 Binoculars

Mil Reticle Pattern

The M19 is the preferred optical instrument for conducting hasty scans. This binocular (Figure 2-32) has 7-power magnification with a 50-mm objective lens, and an interpupillary scale located on the hinge. The sniper should adjust the binocular until one sharp circle appears while looking through them. After adjusting the binoculars' interpupillary distance (distance between a person's pupils), the sniper should make a mental note of the reading on this scale for future reference. The eyepieces are also adjustable. The sniper can adjust one eyepiece at a time by turning the eyepiece with one hand while placing the palm of the other hand over the objective lens of the other monocular. While keeping both eyes open, he adjusts the eyepiece until he can see a crisp, clear view. After one eyepiece is adjusted, he repeats the procedure with the remaining eyepiece. The sniper should also make a mental note of the diopter scale reading on both eyepieces for future reference. One side of the...

Application Of Fire

PURPOSE Under normal conditions, all sniping occurs over unknown distances. Without a thorough grounding in the practical application of external ballistics, it is unlikely that a sniper will be capable of hitting his targets at any point but the shortest ranges. This lesson concerns itself with the fundamentals of unknown distance shooting and the application of exterior ballistics. a* Objective. To enable the sniper to apply the fundamentals of exterior ballistics in the engagement of targets at unknown distances to include definition and application of minute of angle corrections, minute of angle conversions, indication of targets and fire control orders, and practical application of exterior ballistics for firing over ground and computing hit probability. b. Training Objectives. As a sniper demonstrate the application of the following training objectives in accordance with FMFM 1-3B and TC 23-14.

Effects Of Light

Light does not affect the trajectory of the bullet however, it does affect the way the sniper sees the target through the scope. This effect can be compared to the refraction (bending) of light through a medium, such as a prism or a fish bowl. The same effect, although not as drastic, can be observed on a day with high humidity and with sunlight from high angles. The only way the sniper can adjust for this effect is to refer to past firing recorded in the sniper data book. He can then compare different light and humidity conditions and their effect on marksmanship. Light may also affect firing on unknown distance ranges since it affects range determination capabilities.

Common Errors

When engaging moving targets, the sniper makes common errors because he is under greater stress than with a stationary target. There are more considerations, such as retaining a steady position and the correct aiming point, how fast the target is moving, and how far away it is. The more practice a sniper has shooting moving targets, the better he will become. Some common mistakes are as follows a. The sniper has a tendency to watch his target instead of his aiming point. He must force himself to watch his leaapoint. b. The sniper may jerk or flinch at the moment his weapon fires because he thinks he must fire NOW. This can be overcome through practice on a live-fire range. c. The sniper may hurry and thus forget to apply wind as needed. Windage must be calculated for moving targets just as for stationary targets. Failure to do this when squiring a lead will result in a miss.

Protective Mask

The greatest problem while firing the M24 with the M17-series protective mask was that of recoil breaking the seal of the mask. Also, due to filter elements and hard eye lenses, the sniper could not gain and maintain proper stock weld and eye relief. Additionally, the observer could b. Its flexible face shield allowed for excellent observation. This also allowed the sniper and observer to achieve proper eye relief, which was needed for observation with their respective telescopes.


The continuation of a sniper program in Special Warfare will depend on how well, you as snipers can support the Seal Platoons to carry out their assigned mission or independent sniper operations. 2. Purpose. This lesson outline is constructed to better advise the Seal Scout Sniper to employ himself by giving a better understanding of weapons, tactics, and employment involving, Has kins 50 Cal S.W.S., Ship Boarding, Across the geact operations, HAHO Airborne Insertions. a. Describe the tactical employment of snipers in, 50 Cal. S.W.S. Operations, Ship Boarding, Across the Beach and HAHO Operations, involving snipers in the support of Seal Platoons, or conducting independent Seal Sniper Operations.

Section I Camouflage

Camouflage is one of the basic weapons of war. It can mean the difference between a successful or unsuccessful mission. To the sniper team, it can mean the difference between life and death. Camouflage measures are important since the team cannot afford to be detected at any time while moving alone, as part of another element, or while operating from a firing position. Marksmanship training teaches the sniper to hit a target, and a knowledge of camouflage teaches him how to avoid becoming a target. Paying attention to camouflage fundamentals is a mark of a well-trained sniper. (See FM 5-20 for more details.)

Basic Methods

The sniper team can use three basic methods of camouflage. It may use one of these methods or a combination of all three to accomplish its objective. The three basic methods a sniper team can use are hiding, blending, and deceiving. b. Blending. Blending is used to match personal camouflage with the surrounding area to a point where the sniper cannot be seen. c. Deceiving. Deceiving is used to fool the enemy into false conclusions about the location of the sniper team.

Types Of Camouflage

The two types of camouflage that the sniper team can use are natural and artificial. a. Natural. Natural camouflage is vegetation or materials that are native to the given area. The sniper augments his appearance by using natural camouflage. b. Artificial. Artificial camouflage is any material or substance that is produced for the purpose of coloring or covering something in order to conceal it. Camouflage sticks or face paints are used to cover all exposed areas of skin such as face, hands, and the back of the neck. The parts of the face that form shadows should be lightened, and the parts that shine should be darkened. The three types of camouflage patterns the sniper team uses are striping, blotching, and combination.


Upon receiving a mission, the sniper team locates the target area and then determines the best location for a tentative position by using one or more of the following sources of information topographic maps, aerial photographs, visual reconnaissance before the mission, and information gained from units operating in the area. a. The sniper team ensures the position provides an optimum balance between the following considerations b. A sniper team must remember that a position that appears to be in an ideal location may also appear that way to the enemy. Therefore, the team avoids choosing locations that are c. The sniper team must use its imagination and ingenuity in choosing a good location for the given mission. The team chooses a location that not only allows the team to be effective but also must appear to the enemy to be the least likely place for a team position. The following are examples of such positions

Target Indicators

To become proficient in camouflage, the sniper team must first understand target indicators. Target indicators are anything a soldier does or fails to do that could result in detection. A sniper team must know and understand target indication not only to move undetected, but also to detect enemy movement. Target indicators are sound, movement, improper camouflage, disturbance of wildlife, and odors.


During rehearsals, the sniper rechecks his plans and makes any needed changes. It is through well-directed and realistic rehearsals that the team becomes thoroughly familiar with their actions on the mission. a. The sniper team uses terrain similar to that on which they will operate (if available), rehearsing all actions if time permits. A good way to rehearse is to talk the team through each phase, describing the actions of each sniper, and then perform the actions as a dry run. When actions are understood, the sniper team goes through all the phases, using the signals and commands to be used during the mission. b. If there is no time for rehearsals, the sniper team conducts a briefback talk-through. This method is used to supplement rehearsals or when security needs or a lack of time preclude dry runs and wet runs. In this method, the team leader talks the observer through his actions and then has him orally repeat those actions. The sniper team...

Final Preparations

The sniper makes any last-minute changes and corrects any deficiencies found during initial inspections. Final inspection should be made by the SEO and an S3 representative. Again, pockets and rucksacks are emptied maps, and other unauthorized items. The sniper ensures all previous

Iron Sights

Sniper Iron Sights

Depending on the situation, a sniper may be required to deliver an effective shot at ranges up to 900 meters or more. This requires the sniper to zero his rifle with the iron sights and the M3A scope at most ranges that he can be expected to fire. a. Mounting. To mount iron sights, the sniper must remove the M3A scope first. c. Zeroing. Zeroing iron sights should be done on the same type of range and targets as in paragraph 2-10a. To set a mechanical zero on the iron sights for windage, the sniper turns the windage dial all the way to the left or right, then he counts the number of clicks it takes to get from one side to the other. He divides this number by 2 for example, 120 divided by 2 equals 60. The sniper turns the windage dial 60 clicks back to the center. If the two zeros on the windage indicator plate do not align, he loosens the screw on the windage indicator plate and aligns the two zeros. The sniper uses the same procedure to set a mechanical zero for elevation. Once a...


The SEO aids the sniper team in coordination of air support available for the three phases of operations insertion, execution, and extraction and recovery. These techniques may be limited by the type of unit to which the sniper team is assigned, depending on the unit's resources. The team should adhere to the plan outlined in this chapter. Insertion is the first critical phase of sniper operations. Regardless of the mission, the team must pass through terrain where the enemy may use sophisticated detection devices. The selected method of insertion depends on the mission, enemy situation, resources available, weather and terrain, depth of penetration, and mission priority.

Planning Insertion

The preferred method of insertion is the one that best reduces the chance of detection. To provide the most current and specific details on the target area and infiltration routes from all sources, the headquarters and the sniper team adhere to the following b. Deception. Make plans to deny the enemy knowledge of the sniper team's insertion or to deceive him as to the location or intent of the operation. False insertions and other cover operations (such as air strikes, ground attacks, and air assault operations), as well as the use of multiple routes and means of insertion, ECM, and false transmissions, contribute to sniper deception plans. Select unexpected means of insertion, times, places, and routes, coupled with speed and mobility to help deceive the enemy. Also include in plans diversionary fires to direct the enemy's attention away from the team. Specific techniques may include the following

M3a Scope

Reticle Png

The M3A scope is an optical instrument that the sniper uses to improve his ability to see his target clearly in most situations. Usually, the M3A scope presents the target at an increased size (as governed by scope magnification), relative to the same target at the same distance without a scope. The M3A scope helps the sniper to identify recognize the target. His increased sighting ability also helps him to successfully engage the target. a. M3A Scope Adjustments. The sniper must use the following adjustment procedures on the M3A scope (4) Eyepiece adjustment. The eyepiece (Figure 2-19) is adjusted by turning it in or out of the barrel until the reticle appears crisp and clear. Focusing the eyepiece should be done after mounting the scope. The sniper grasps the eyepiece and backs it away from the lock ring. He does not attempt to loosen the lock ring first it loosens automatically when he backs away from the eyepiece (no tools needed). The eyepiece is turned several turns to move it...

Amphibious Insertion

Water insertion may be by surface swimming, small boat, submarine, surface craft, helocasting, or a combination thereof. The sniper team needs detailed information to plan and execute a small-boat landing, which is the most difficult phase of a waterborne insertion. Close coordination is required with naval support units. h. Actions on the Beach. Once on the beach, sniper team members move to a covered and concealed security position to defend the landing site. The sniper team then conducts a brief listening halt and checks the beach landing area for signs of enemy activity. The team may deflate, bury, or camouflage the boat near the landing site or away from it, depending on the enemy situation, the terrain, and the time available. If the boat is to be disposed of or hidden near the landing site, a member must be designated to dig a hole or cut brush for camouflage. After the boat is disposed of, a designated team member sweeps the beach to erase tracks and drag marks. i. Insertion...

Site Selection

Selection of the firing position is METT-T dependent. As a minimum, the sniper team uses the following criteria when selecting an FFP a. Ensures that an unrestricted observation of the target area is possible. The team can then place the designated target area under constant, effective surveillance and within the range of RSTA devices and the sniper's weapon system. The sniper team follows the communications procedures as outlined in the unit SOP. The team members must ensure that communications are maintained throughout the mission by the use of directional antennas, masking, and burst transmissions. a. The sniper team does not analyze information it only collects and reports based on SIR. The team must format information reporting IAW the unit SOP and the type of communications equipment used. b. Other reports that the sniper team may use, such as emergency resupply, communication checks, and emergency extraction, should also be formatted IAW the SOP.


The sniper team must be prepared to exfiltrate over predetermined land routes to friendly lines as a team (or individually) or to exfiltrate to an area for extraction by air or water. Planning includes the following b. Terrain. The terrain is important in selecting extraction means. The extraction site must offer favorable tactical considerations, tide data, PZ suitability, and cover from enemy direct-fire weapons. The sniper team uses the most unlikely terrain for extraction such as swamps, jungles, and mountain areas. d. Evasion and Escape. Preinsertion planning must include the development of a viable evasion and escape plan. The sniper team must do the following


Communications are a vital aspect in successful mission accomplishment. The information in this section helps the sniper team maintain effective communications and correct any radio antenna problems. Antennas are sometimes broken or damaged, causing either a communications failure or poor communications. If a spare antenna is available, the damaged antenna is replaced. When there is no spare, the sniper team may have to construct an emergency antenna. The following paragraphs contain suggestions for repairing antennas and antenna supports and the construction and adjustment of emergency antennas.

Military Sketch

Sniper Field Sketch

A panoramic sketch (Figure 4-22, page 4-44) is a representation of an area or object drawn to scale as seen from the sniper team's perspective. It shows details about a specific area or a man-made structure. Information considered in a panoramic sketch includes the following (4) Grid coordinates of sniper team's position. b. Topographic Sketch. A topographic sketch (Figure 4-23) is a topographic representation of an area drawn to scale as seen from above. It provides the sniper team with a method for describing large areas while showing reliable distance and azimuths between major features. This type orsketch is useful in describing road systems, flow of streams rivers, orlocations of natural and man-made obstacles. ne field sketch can also be used as an overlay on the range card. Information contained in a field sketch includes the following (1) Grid coordinates of the sniper team's position.

Arctic Areas

Moisture from the sniper's breath may freeze on the perforated cover plate of his microphone. Standard microphone covers can be used to prevent this. If standard covers are not available, a suitable cover can be improvised from rubber or cellophane membranes or from rayon or nylon cloth.


Lesson purpose To familirize SEAL scout sniper in the operation of the A IT PSC-3, Objective To familirize the SEAL scout sniper in the capibiities and operation of the AU PSC-3 for future field use. a. To familirize the SEAL sniper in 1. Equipinent setup. TO Train the SEAL scout sniper in the required skills needed to operate the AN PSC-3 in a field enviroinent.

Completion Of Plan

After the warning order has been issued and a thorough map reconnaissance made, most coordination should be completed. The sniper makes an intelligence update while the observer prepares himself and the equipment for the mission. The sniper completes his plan based on his map reconnaissance and or any changes in the enemy situation. He may or may not alter the tentative plan, but he can add detail. The sniper uses the OPORD format as a guide to refine his concept. He places the main focus on actions in the objective area and carefully assigns the observer specific tasks for all phases of the operation. He ensures all actions work smoothly and efficiently.

Angle Firing

Most practice firing conducted by the sniper team involves the use of military range facilities, which are relatively flat. However, as a sniper being deployed to other regions of the world, the chance exists for operating in a mountainous or urban environment. This requires target engagements at higher and lower elevations. Unless the sniper takes corrective action, bullet impact will be above the point of aim. How high the bullet hits is determined by the range and angle to the target (Table 3-3). The amount of elevation change applied to the telescope of the rifle for angle firing is known as slope dope.


Displacement takes place when anything is moved from its original position. A well-defined footprint or shoe print in soft, moist ground is a good example of displacement. By studying the footprint or shoe print, the sniper determines several important facts. For example, a print left by worn footgear or by bare feet may indicate lack of proper equipment. Displacement can also result from clearing a trail by breaking or cutting through heavy vegetation with a machete. These trails are obvious to the most inexperienced sniper who is tracking. Individuals may (4) To determine the sex (D, Figure 8-l), the sniper should study the size and position of the footprints. Women tend to be pigeon-toed, while men walk with their feet straight ahead or pointed slightly to the outside. b. Determining Key Prints. The last individual in the file usually leaves the clearest footprints these become the key prints. The sniper cuts a stick to match the length of the prints and notches it to indicate the...


By studying bloodstains, the sniper can determine the wound's location. The sniper can also determine the seriousness of the wound and how far the wounded person can move unassisted. This proms may lead the sniper to enemy bodies or indicate where they have been carried. c. The sniper may have difficulty in determining the difference between staining and displacement since both terms can be applied to some indicators. For example, muddied water may indicate recent movement displaced mud also stains the water. Muddy footgear can stain stones in streams, and algae can be displaced from stones in streams and can stain other stones or the bank. Muddy water collects in new footprints in swampy ground however, the mud settles and the water clears with time. The sniper can use this information to indicate time normally, the mud clears in about one hour, although time varies with the terrain.


Weather either aids or hinders the sniper. It also affects indicators in certain ways so that the sniper can determine their relative ages. However, wind, snow, rain, or sunlight can erase indicators entirely and hinder the sniper. The sniper should know how weather affects soil, vegetation, and other indicators in his area. He cannot determine the age of indicators until he understands the effects that weather has on trail signs. a. By studying weather effects on indicators, the sniper can determine the age of the sign (for example, when bloodstains are fresh, they are bright red). Air and sunlight first change blood to a deep ruby-red color, then to a dark brown crust when the moisture evaporates. Scuff marks on trees or bushes darken with time sap oozes, then hardens when it makes contact with the air. b. Weather affects footprints (Figure 8-5). By carefully studying the weather process, the sniper can estimate the age of the print. If particles of soil are beginning to fall into...

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