The Science off Martial Art Training

Actually decompress the spine significantly, reducing the amount of pressure on the spinal disks. With a belt, one can actually exert pressure against the belt with the abdominals, which allows athletes to obtain even greater intra-abdominal pressure, and hence, more unloading of the spine. While this would appear to be beneficial, whenever using an aid of any kind, muscles are doing less work respective to the load they are lifting. During a recent study at the Albany Medical Center in Albany,...

Technical and Tactical Preparation

O this point, discussion has focused exclusively on conditioning, or preparing the body for the demands of training and most important, competition. The next emphasis is technique (or skills training), often referred to as biomechanics. Despite the earlier emphasis on strength, flexibility, and endurance, superior conditioning wont help an athlete unless the skills of his or her discipline are mastered. Instructors and students alike are prone to underestimating the importance of efficient...

Phase Six Transition

Description The transition phase entails a brief change of pace from competitive stresses and high level training activities. Goals To recover, both physically and psychologically, from the previous macrocycle. During this time, the athlete may attend to postural and or flexibility concerns, rehabilitation from injuries, and planning of the next macrocycle. Loading Parameters There are no formal loading parameters for this phase. The training B-1 15 degree Incline Dumbell Press Accel erative...

The Principle of Variability

One of the more paradoxical facts about training is that specificity must be balanced against variability within the context of a sound training program. In other words, specificity is necessary, but too much of it is just as much of a problem as not having enough Here's why 1) The effectiveness of any program is a function of the degree to which it challenges your body. The problem is that familiar programs are less challenging, because the body habituates (habituation is the gradual reduction...

Physical Preparation Muscle Assessment and Training

This chapter first discusses the basics of neuromuscular physiology to develop an appreciation of how the body works, particularly in regards to force development. It also introduces the conceptual aspects of bio-motor development. Then, each muscle is described including its basic anatomy and function. Those portions on muscle anatomy include how to assess the length of that muscle, and how to stretch it if the length proves to be insufficient. Finally, specific strength training exercises and...

Strength training exercises for the quadriceps

Position the barbell on the support pins inside of a power rack, such that the bar is level with your mid-chest. Place safety pins on each side, at a position slightly lower than your intended deepest position. Place your hands evenly on the bar a close grip with elbows under the bar will allow for a more upright posture and, with your feet squarely under the bar, lift it from the rack by extending your legs. Next, step back just enough to avoid bumping the rack during the exercise,...

Info

Supercompensation

TABLE 1-1 The Training Factors Pyramid The second level of the pyramid involves technical preparation or perfecting physical techniques. While some techniques can be mastered with a low level of physical preparation, many cannot. For instance, a jump-spin crescent kick requires a high degree of dynamic balance, explosive strength, and flexibility. In the martial arts, where very difficult maneuvers are the norms, it is clear that physical preparation is a prerequisite for technical practice. Of...

Strength Training Exercises for the Glutes

Open Chain Back Extension

This unique exercise allows an open-chain extension of the torso, essentially the reverse of the hip extension exercise. Assume a prone position on the machine, holding securely onto the handles. Clasp a dumbbell between your feet for added resistance. Using a strong contraction of the erector spinae, glutes, and hamstrings, raise the lower body until the entire body is parallel to the floor. Maintain a consistent curvature of the lower back. If the curve of the lower back...

Joint Problems and Injuries

The following section was adapted from a series of articles by the author in conjunction with Dr. Sal A. Arria for Muscle amp Fitness magazine. Most athletes are no strangers to joint problems, and martial artists are no exception. The following section deals with the most common joint problems and injuries, and offers a range of preventive suggestions and solutions. Remember that with any medical problem, the most prudent first step is to consult with a competent sports medicine physician,...

Stretching Methods for the Gastrocnemius and Soleus

Gastrocnemius Training

Instruct the athlete to stand on an elevated surface as if performing unilateral standing calf raises. The athlete plantar flexes his ankle, using approximately 35-50 of maximal effort he should raise his heel about one inch . Give the subject an audible count of six to eight seconds, at which point he will relax, allowing himself to drop into a deeper ROM. From this new, deeper ROM, perform the count again. Repeat for three to five repetitions, or until subsequent repetitions do...

Trunk Extensors Erector Spinae

The erector spinae muscle groups are the predominant trunk extensors. Strong trunk extensors are necessary to balance the strength of the rectus abdominous, and to maintain efficient postural stabilization and control. They are most commonly trained through the use of the back extension exercise, performed on a specialized apparatus designed for this purpose below . Back Extensions. Perform on a standard machine made for this purpose. Assume a position so that the navel is on the pad and the...

Deltoids and Rotator Cuff

Tight Deltoids

The deltoid is a single muscle with three heads. The front head causes flexion of the shoulder joint, the rear head causes extension of the shoulder, and finally, the middle head is responsible for pure abduction of the arm. The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles whose tendons join to form a tendinous cuff' which strongly contributes to the stability of the gleno-humoral joint. These muscles can be remembered through the acronym SITS, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor,...

Muscle Factors In Tendon And Muscles In Striking And Throwing Sports Science

1 Structural anatomical factors 2 Physiological biochemical factors 3 Psycho neural psycho social factors 4 External environmental factors26 TABLE 3-7 Constraining Factors for Strength Development Strength The Multi-Faceted Motor Quality Strength as a bio-motor ability has many expressions. All human movement requires strength of one type or another, and for this reason, all athletes must concern themselves with developing their strength levels to the utmost. In the following sections, various...

Macronutrients Protein Carbohydrates and Fats

All nutrients are classified either as macronutrients, which are the sources of calories, and micronutrients, which, although not sources of calories, are vital co-fac tors which help the body make better use of the macronutrients. Athletes should construct their meals based on protein. In fact, the word protein actually comes from the Greek word Protos meaning first. Protein provides four calories of energy per gram of weight. Protein needs depend upon body weight specifically, lean body...

Stretching methods for the pecs

The pectoral muscle can be effectively stretched along by placing your lower arm against a doorjamb, as shown. Apply pressure against the doorjamb by attempting to push your torso through the doorway, using approximately 35-50 of maximal effort. Use a count of 6-8 seconds, at which point you release the pressure. Next, try to increase your range of motion, deepening the stretch. From this new, deeper ROM, perform the count again. Repeat for 3-5 repetitions, or until subsequent repetitions do...

How Muscles Produce Force

Muscle Recruits

1 Motor unit recruitment intramuscular coordination . All muscle fibers are one component of what physiologists call motor units MU . A MU is defined as a motor neuron or nerve cell and all the muscle fibers it innervates or recruits. There are several essential facts that athletes and coaches should further understand about the functioning of MUs All the fibers of a MU tend to have the same characteristics. When all the fibers are type II, the motor unit is said to be a high threshold or fast...

Strength Training Exercises for the Gastrocnemius Sole us and Tibealis

If possible, perform these standing on the handle of a large hexagonal dumbbell. This allows for better conformity to the gastrocs strength curve. Leg Press Calf Raise. Assume a position in a leg press machine and press the platform to a straight leg position. Move both feet down until only the forefeet are in contact with the platform. From this position, plantarflex the ankles against the resistance. Relax to return back to the starting position. This exercise...

Stretching Methods for the Latissimus Dorsi

The subject sits with arms abducted and elbows flexed, with hands behind the head. Ask him to apply pressure to the partners hands by attempting to adduct his arms, using approximately 35-50 of maximal effort. Give the subject an audible count of six to eight seconds, then release the pressure. Next, prompt the athlete to attempt to increase his range of motion, deepening the stretch. From this new, deeper ROM, perform the count again. Repeat for three to five repetitions, or until subsequent...

Measuring Intensity

Tapering Athlete

Sparring ability of opponent i.e., a black belt opponent is more difficult than a yellow belt opponent , size of opponent, amount of contact permitted and conditions i.e., poor flooring, low light, injuries, etc. . Intensity can also be increased by handicapping i.e., not allowing oneself to use certain techniques, etc. . Equipment Drills heart rate during and after an activity is a very reliable indicator of difficulty. Also, the peculiarities of the equipment being used hitting a 100 pound...

Planning Periodization of Training

The term training refers to the planned, systematic presentation of gradually more difficult challenges in order to increase an athlete s state of preparedness, all for the purpose of achieving a specific goal or goals. To an athlete, these challenges are known as workouts, but the important thing to realize is, without the bigger picture in mind, someone is not really training, but rather, simply exercising. This distinction reveals the significant differences between being an athlete and a...

The Principle of Foundation The Training Factors Pyramid

Mastery of a martial art is accomplished by developing a foundation before progressing to more advanced levels of training. Thus, the purpose of this chapter is to expose the reader to foundational training concepts derived from the world of sports science. And while martial art is not sport, the two disciplines have much in common from a physical point of view. Martial artists can learn much from recent developments in sport science if they will only empty their cup, so to speak. One...

Transverse Abdominus

The transverse abdominus are the deepest layers of the abdominal wall, and are one of the primary respiratory muscles. It is quite difficult to train in a pure sense. Athletes come closest to training the transverse abdominus during a kiai while executing a strong technique, when performing a heavy squat or deadlift, or during a hard sneeze or cough. The abdominals are antagonistic to the spinal extensors. The abdominals function as part of a kinetic chain, which also includes the neck and hip...

Gastrocnemius Soleus and Tibealis

These are the three significant muscles below the knee. The gastroc plantar flexes the ankle when the knee is straight, and the soleus does the same when the knee is flexed. The tibealis is the primary dorsiflexor of the ankle. The gastrocs and soleus are antagonistic to the tibealis anterior. Martial Arts Applications. The gastrocs are strongly involved in all sprinting, jumping, and kicking activities. The tibealis is important in grappling disciplines for controlling the...

Abductors and Adductors

Adductors And Abductors

These muscles are named for their function at the hip joint. The adductors cause adduction movement of the leg toward the body's center line , and consist of the adductor magnus, brevis, and longus, as well as the pectinius and gracilis. Also, the medial portion of the hamstrings as well as the sartorius may assist in adduction. The primary hip abductor abduction is defined as movement of a limb away from the body's center line is the gluteus medius, a small muscle which receives...

Anatomical and Physiological Basis of Stretching

Understanding flexibility starts with a basic knowledge of cellular muscle anatomy and physiology. Of particular importance is the basic unit of the muscle cell which includes the sarcomere and the three primary inhibitory proprioceptors the Golgi tendon organ GTO , the muscle spindle, and the Pacinian corpuscles . The Sarcomere. Muscle fibrils have the ability to change length because they are constructed of overlapping strands of protein polymers called actin the thin strands and myosin the...

The Effect of Body Temperature on Flexibility

Body temperature is an important consideration when attempting to improve joint flexibility. Increased temperature helps to facilitate increases in range of motion ROM , while decreased temperature tends to preserve increases in muscle length. Prior to performing stretching exercises, body temperature must be elevated through a warm-up. The warm-up can be passive, meaning a hot bath or shower, or preferably, active, meaning a brief session of cardiovascular activity. Although many individuals...

Plyometric Training

Plyometric Sit Ups

Although plyometrics are overused by many athletes in their quest for the magic pill solution to their training problems, plyometric drills can be a valuable component of a speed strength development program. Plyometric workouts must be designed with sufficient recovery periods to ensure that fatigue does not take the elasticity out of the athletes movements, since it is this repeated elastic neuromuscular control of impact which provides the training effect. A thorough description of all...