1. SIGNALING DEVICES. The equipment listed below are items that may be on your body or items inside an aircraft. Generally, these items are used as signaling devices during movement. They must be accessible for use at any moments notice.
a. Pyrotechnics. Pyrotechnics include star clusters and smoke grenades. When using smoke grenades in snow pack, a platform must be built. Without a platform, the smoke grenade will sink into the snow pack and the snow will absorb all smoke.
b. M-186 Pen Flare. The M-186 Pen Flare is a signaling device carried in the vest of all crew chiefs and pilots. Remember to cock the gun prior to screwing in the flare.
c. Strobe Light. A strobe light is generally carried in the flight vests of all crew chiefs and pilots. It can be used at night for signaling. Care must be taken because a pilot under goggles can't distinguish a flashing strobe from hostile fire.
Flashlight. By using flashlights, a Morse code message can be sent. An SOS distress call consists of sending three dots, three dashes, and three dots. Keep repeating this signal.
e. Whistle. The whistle is used in conjunction with the audio international distress signal. It is used to communicate with forces on the ground.
f. AN/PRC-90 & AN/PRC-112. The AN/ PRC 90 survival radio is a part of the aviator's survival vest. The AN/PRC-112 will eventually replace the AN/PRC-90. Both radio's can transmit either tone (beacon) or voice. Frequency for both are 282.8 for voice, and 243.0 for beacon. Both of these frequencies are on the UHF Band.
g. Day/Night Flare. The day/night flare is a good peacetime survival signal. The flare is for night signaling while the smoke is for day. The older version flare is identified by a red cap with three nubbins while the new generation has three rings around the body for identification during darkness. The flare burns for approximately 20 second while the smoke burns for approximately 60 seconds.
NOTE. Once one end is used up, douse in water to cool and save the other end for future use.
h. Signal Mirror. A mirror or any shiny object can be used as a signaling device. It can be used as many times as needed. It can be concentrated in one area, making it secure from enemy observation. A mirror is the best signaling device for a survivor. However, it is only as effective as its user. Learn how to use one now before you find yourself in a survival situation.
(1) Military signal mirrors have instructions on its back showing how to use it. It should be kept covered to prevent accidental flashing that may be seen by the enemy.
(2) Any shiny metallic object can be substituted for a signal mirror.
(3) Haze, ground fog, or a mirage may make it hard for a pilot to spot signals from a flashing object. So, if possible, get to the highest point in your area when flashing. If you can't determine the aircraft's location, flash your signal in the direction of the aircraft noise.
NOTE: Pilots have reported seeing mirror flashes up to 160 kilometers away under ideal conditions.
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