Outline

1. RESOURCES (WSVX.02.11a) . The materials used to make all field expedient tools, weapons, and equipment will fall into one of the five categories.

a. Stone. Stone will make an excellent striking, puncturing or chopping tool, but will not hold a fine edge. Some stones, such as chert, flint, or obsidian can have very fine edges. Quality stone during winter months is extremely difficult to locate.

(1) Chipping & Flaking. To make a sharp-edge piece of stone, a chipping tool and flaking tool is needed. A chipping tool is a light, blunt-edged tool used to break off small pieces of stone. A flaking tool is a pointed tool used to break off thin, flattened pieces of stone. You can make a chipping tool from wood, bone, or metal and a flaking tool from bone, antler tines, or soft iron.

(2) Weapon heads. Certain stones will shatter under pressure when force is delivered upon it. When selecting a stone, test its hardness prior to use.

b. Bone. Bone has many uses. Hooks, shaft tips, scrapers, awls, sockets and handles are just a few ideas.

(1) Raw Bone. Raw bone must be shattered with a heavy object, such as a rock.

(2) Shaping & Sharpening. From the pieces of shattered bone, select a suitable pointed splinter. You can further shape and sharpen this splinter by rubbing it in a rough surfaced rock or metal file (i.e., from your multi-purpose knife).

c. Wood. Wood uses are unlimited. A knife blade can fashion the wood into any desired shape.

(1) Types. Wood is classified into two general categories: hard and soft. Hardwood is preferred for all survival uses. To test the wood strength, press your fingernail into the grain of the wood. If a print is visible, the wood is generally soft.

(2) Sharpening. All wood points are sharpened to the side of the shaft. Wood is weakest at the center and will not hold a point.

(3) Fire hardening. All green wood should be fire hardened prior to use. Do this by holding the point of the instrument a few inches above a bed of hot coals while slowly rotating it. Gradually the wood will begin to hiss and steam. Fire hardening makes the cells swell and the sap thicken, which makes the wood more resistant to abrasion and concussion. Avoid charring the wood. Fire harden only the tip until light brown.

(4) Coal burning. It is very difficult to carve depressions in wood. A depression in wood can be made by a process called coal-burning. Using a pair of tongs, place a hot coal over the area you want to hollow out, then blow on the embers with a thin, steady stream of air to keep them glowing. If available, use a thin reed or length of hollow bone to direct the stream of air. After the coals have burned down, scrape out the charred wood with a knife or sharp rock. Repeat this process with fresh sets of coals until the depression is at the desired depth.

d. Metal. Metal is the best material to make field expedient edged weapons. When properly designed, metal can fulfill a knife's three uses: puncture, slice or chop, and cut. First, select a suitable piece of metal, one that most resembles the desired end product. Depending on the size and original shape, you can obtain a point and cutting edge by rubbing the metal on a rough surfaced stone or metal file. If the metal is soft enough, you can hammer out one edge while the metal is cold. Use a suitable flat, hard surface as an anvil and a harder object of stone or metal as a hammer, to hammer out the edge.

e. Other materials. Other materials are those items that can be found or may be on your body which can be used in the construction of field expedient tools.

(1) Load bearing equipment clips. The sliding retaining clip can be removed and sharpened to a point.

(2) Plastic. Plastic, Plexiglas, and glass from an aircraft can be shaped and sharpened into a point. Plastic can also be melted as an adhesive.

(3) Parachute cord. Parachute cord has unlimited uses for construction of field expedient tools.

(4) Pine pitch glue. Pine pitch glue, when properly made, is like an epoxy. Locate and remove pitch from a pine tree. The highest quality pitch to use is fresh sap. The older (dry and hard) sap will work, but not as well. Melt the pitch on an elevated platform, such as a smooth rock. The pitch will run down the platform. Using a 6-8 inch stick, coat the stick in the pool of pitch until it resembles a large wooden match. To use the pitch stick as glue, light the pitch end of the stick, allowing it to drip on the area to be glued. Once sufficiently coated with pitch, sprinkle the activator over the pitch. An activator is finely ground eggshell or fire wood ash.

2. CLUBS. Clubs are held and not thrown. As a field expedient weapon, the club does not protect you from enemy soldiers. It can, however, extend your area of defense beyond your fingertips. It also serves to increase the force of a blow without injuring yourself. The only club we are going to discuss is the simple club.

a. Simple club. A simple club is a staff or branch. It must be short enough for you to swing easily, but long and strong enough to damage whatever you hit. Its diameter should fit comfortably in the palm, but not be so thin as to break easily upon impact.

3. SURVIVAL STICKS. (WSVX.02.11b) There are three types of survival sticks which are useful in a survival situation.

a. Noose stick. A noose stick is useful for strangling and controlling improperly snared animals that are still alive.

(1) Find a pole as long as you can effectively handle.

(2) Attach a noose of wire or stiff cord at the small end.

(3) To catch an animal, slip the noose over the neck and pull it tight.

(3) To catch an animal, slip the noose over the neck and pull it tight.

NOOSE STICK

b. Sling shot. A Y-shaped stick can easily be made into a sling shot. A sling shot is an extremely effective and accurate weapon.

iiif IMPROVISED SLING SHOT

(1) Locate a hardwood, Y-shaped stick.

(2) From your survival kit, attach the sling shot rubber and pouch.

c. Throwing stick. One of the simplest weapons for survival is the throwing stick. As a tool, the throwing stick can be used to knock dead branches out of a tree that would normally be too high to reach. The dead branches can then be used as firewood.

(1) Find a stick straight as possible, 2.5-3 feet long, and 1.5-2 inches in diameter.

(2) Remove the bark from the stick.

(3) Taper each end of the stick.

(4) Fire harden the entire stick if using green wood.

(5) There are two methods of employing the throwing stick. When in forested area, the best method is to use an overhand throwing motion. In an open area, you can increase the killing radius by using a sidearm throwing motion.

4. EXPEDIENT PACKS. The horseshoe pack is simple to make, use, and relatively comfortable to carry over one shoulder.

a. Lay available square-shaped material, such as a poncho or tarp flat on the ground.

b. Lay items on one edge of the material. Place those items frequently used (i.e., canteens) on the outside. Pad the hard items.

c. Roll the material (with the items) towards the opposite edge and tie both ends securely.

d. Tie extra lines along the length of the bundle.

e. Fold the bundle in half and secure a long piece of rope to the apex of the fold.

f. Attach pack to your body.

HORSESHOE PACK

5. UTENSILS. Utensils are used for cooking, eating, and storing food.

a. Bowl or Container. Bowls and containers can serve to carry and store food. They can be made from bone and wood. To make them out of wood:

(1) Locate or split a piece of wood.

(2) Coal burn to the desired depth.

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