1. FISH. In a mountainous region, fish are normally an abundant resource. Not only are they a food source, the "left overs" provide an excellent lure for traps and snares.

a. Winter Fishing Challenges. In cold weather mountainous regions, fishing has some unique challenges.

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(1) Decreased water temperatures and lack of oxygen supply in frozen lakes decrease the activity of fish.

(2) Access to water sources for fishing can be dangerous due to snow depth ice.

(3) Modified fishing techniques must be applied when winter fishing.

(4) Bait is difficult to find during winter months. The following may aid in procurement of bait. (WSVX.02.10a)

(a) Look for galls in plants. A gall is the abnormal swelling of plant caused by insects.

(b) If birds are pecking at trees, insects may be located there.

(c) After the first fish is caught, an eye or the first dorsal fin makes exceptional bait.

b. Fishing locations. (WSVX.02.10b) Fishing in mountain streams is generally best done with a hand line. When fishing mountainous streams, always look for these places to fish as snow and ice allows.

FISHING LOCATIONS 2. FISHING TOOLS. Not in every instance may the survivor have everything needed to fish with. At times it may be necessary to build certain equipment.

a. Expedient hooks. Although hooks should be carried in a survival kit, the survivor should be able to construct additional hooks if the situation requires. One-piece hooks generally work better than two-piece hooks. Expedient hooks are made to become lodged in the throat of the fish. Below are a few examples.

One-piece hooks

b. Ice fishing tools. (WSVX.02.10c) Many fish are alive and active under the ice. The ability to chip away ice to gain access is the key.

(1) Ice spud. An ice spud is used to chip a hole into the ice. This should be the only time a fixed blade knife is attached to a pole. Extreme care should be taken in the construction to avoid accidental lose of the knife into the water.

(a) Cut a sturdy pole approximately 4-5 feet in length.

(b) Cut a notch into the heavy end of the pole for the fixed blade knife to fit into.

(c) Fire harden if using green wood.

(d) Lash the fixed blade knife into the notched end of the pole. Dummy cord the knife to the top 1/3 portion of the pole.

(e) Attach a dummy wrist loop into the top 1/3 portion of the pole.

(f) To use, place your wrist into the dummy wrist loop. Begin to chip away at the ice until water is reached. The dummy cord from the knife serves to keep the knife attached to you in case lashing comes off or pole is broken. The dummy wrist loop serves to prevent loss of pole when finally through the ice.

(2) Ice skimmer. The ice skimmer is use to keep ice cleared from the fishing hole.

(a) Cut a small sapling approximately 2 feet in length. Shave all notches and smooth out shaft.

(b) Cut a thin flat piece of wood: approximately 1-2 inches thick, 4-5 inches wide, and 4-5 inches long.

(c) Coal burn the flat piece of wood until approximately a 1/2 inch of wood is remaining on the bottom.

(d) Awl out several holes through this coal-burned piece of wood. This will allow water to flow through.

(e) Bore a hole through one end of the wood. Slide the small shaft through the hole.




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