1. PREPARING FOR A POTENTIAL EVASION SITUATION. The Code of Conduct provides guiding principles to Marines involved in any military operation whether peacekeeping, combat, or survival. An operation that deteriorates so severely that a Marine unit is forced to employ survival skills may require that unit to "evade" hostile enemy units. JP 3-50.3 defines evasion as the process whereby individuals who are isolated in hostile or unfriendly territory avoid capture with the goal of successfully returning to areas under friendly control. Should a survival situation require evading the enemy, success will depend on prior planning.
a. Planning and Preparation. (MSVX.12.16a) The responsibility for proper preparation and planning for evasion ultimately rests with the individuals concerned. All Marines who are tasked to execute any mission should receive the following:
(1) Intelligence Briefings. Information on the mission route, enemy troop dispositions, impact of enemy operations on friendly or multinational military forces, status of the US or multinational military situation, or changing attitudes of the enemy populace.
(2) Evasion Plan of Action (EPA). The EPA is one of the critical documents for successful recovery planning. It is the vehicle by which potential evaders, prior to their isolation in hostile territory, relay their after-isolation intentions to the recovery forces. See Appendix D, "Evasion Plan of Action Format," for details on the content of an EPA.
(3) Selected Areas for Evasion (SAFE) Area Intelligence Descriptions. (WSVX.02.16b) A SAFE is a "designated area in hostile territory that offers isolated personnel a reasonable chance of avoiding capture and of surviving until they can be recovered."
(a) They are designated by the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) and are classified.
(b) Designed to facilitate extended evasion, which must meet certain requirements for approval.
(4) E&R (Evasion and Recovery) Area Studies. E&R areas may be selected in any geographic region based on operational or contingency planning requirements. Although similar to SAFE areas in most respects, they differ in that not all conventional selection criteria for SAFE areas can be met because of current political, military, or environmental factors prevailing in the country.
(5) Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape Guides and Bulletins. They contain the basic information to help an individual survive, successfully evade and, if captured, resist enemy exploitation. These bulletins cover information on topography and hydrography, food and water sources, safe and dangerous plants and animals, customs and cultures.
(6) I solated Personnel Report (ISOPREP). When filled in, the DD Form 1833 is classified CONFIDENTIAL. It enables a recovery force to authenticate evaders.
2. EXECUTING AN EVASION PLAN OF ACTION (EPA). Unforeseen circumstances may require Marines to execute their EPA.
a. Initial Planning. Immediately upon breaking contact, attempt to gain maximum distance between yourself and the enemy.
(1) Carefully consider METT-T during all planning and execution.
(2) Determine unit's combat effectiveness.
(3) Develop a course of action.
b. Movement techniques. If possible, the entire movement to friendly or neutral areas, as well as to designated SAFE areas or E&R areas should be completed without being observed. Furthermore, an appreciation of the methods by which a hostile force may attempt to detect you will assist in techniques to maximize your concealment.
(1) Methods to avoid enemy detection.
(b) Avoid natural lines of drift and Main Supply Routes (MSR).
(c) Avoid all rural areas, small towns, and farms.
-Dogs and domestic poultry are very common and will provide a "first alert" needed to initiate a hostile search.
(2) Methods of detecting the evader.
(a) Direct Observation.
(b) Detection Equipment.
-Active Infrared (IR), such as NVGs -Acoustic detectors/sensors -Direction finding equipment for radios
(c) Search teams.
-Military and/or civilian -Trackers
-Attack or tracking dogs
-Difficult to determine if being tracked by dogs
-Attempt to discourage the dog from doing its job c. Occupation of a SAFE or E&R. (WSVX.02.16c) Prior to movement to, and occupation of a SAFE or E&R area, consider the following:
(1) Conduct a reconnaissance of the entire area for enemy threat. This may me a physical or visual reconnaissance.
(2) Select an occupation site which affords:
(a) Concealed escape routes if detected by enemy.
(b) Close proximity to a potential extraction site.
(c) Observation of the area and avenues of approach.
(3) Apply the requirements for survival.
(4) Execute the communication and signaling plan as ordered.
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