Thb Protractor Effect

'flit wooden dummy of Wing Tsun is constructed according to standardized s|>ecifications, so that the thickness of the trunk, the arms and the log, til« lengths of the arms, the leg, the trunk, the cross-bars and the •upporting pillars are all pre-calculated to suit movements of the Wing Tunn System. Such a wooden dummy will help rectifying the delivery Of movements of the driller, in the same way, as a protractor will rectify mi .ingle. If a driller can make use of the wooden dummy to correct

Ins movements, he will be able to improve rapidly. It is a pity ilmt many followers of Wing Tsun, (Wing Chun or Ving Tsun,) fail to H"l|i| the importance of the wooden dummy, and cannot rectify the dire. and angle of his movements and the relative positions of himself ami I1I4 opponent through the help of the wooden dummy, thus losing lit« "Protractor Effect" of it.

Nowadays, many kung-fu drillers make use of the wooden dummy Hfil aid for learning more kung-fu movements, so that he can boast aU»u| his knowledge in martial arts. Some even go as far as adding supcrMl good-looking variations to a simple practical wooden dummy movement so as to cheat their students. They fail to realize the fact that the irnl portance of Wing Tsun lies in its "simplicity and practicability". I hat || to say one effective movement that can be used in any occasions i<»i defeating an opponent is better than several attractive but ineffective ones. Besides, it is more successful to master ten movements in one vear than to master a hundred movements in the same length of time.

ORIGIN & HISTORY OF THE WOODEN DUMMY OF WING TSUN

Whether the wooden dummy appeared before the creation of Wing Turn kung-fu or Wing Tsun kung-fu was created before the appearance of the wooden dummy is a problem difficult to solve and needs laboring research. However, judging from the hearsay within the Chinese kuny hi circle, we might assume the following possibilities. It is so said that there was a "Wooden Dummy Alley" in the Siu Lam Monastery. If the wooden dummy alley did exist, it might have been .i row of wooden dummies of different structures for intensive training It is believed that the earliest form of the wooden dummy might hive been a simple erected wooden stake that takes the place of a trainee'* opponent. Later, the early founders of Wing Tsun kung-fu gradually improved the device, until it bears three arms and one leg as it looks nowadays. Also exercises with the wooden dummy must have been simple at first, being improved later on, and finally becomes a complet. systematic set of movements known today as the "Wooden Dummy Techniques ".

It is s.iid that during the early years of Grandmaster Yip Man, when Wink I sun Style began to develop in Futshan, the Wooden Dummy lc:hniqu« i consisted of 140 movements, divided into ten sections for practising purposes.

liAlft, (.randmaster Yip Man came to Hong Kong to set up a gymnasium |Ril admitted students. (It must be pointed out here that before this Tsun kung-fu was a secret kung-fu style, and that Grandmaster fty M.in was the first to promote it and to teach students openly). 11« felt that the movements of the Wooden Dummy Techniques were

7Mile numerous and complicated, therefore he rearranged them into OH movements. (The number 108 is particularly preferred by Chinese Hppit because it corresponds to the member of a special set of stars). Ilit, through his experience of years, he found out that the 108 move-■9DH did not include the most essential parts of the Wooden Dummy P^tniques. Therefore he finally regrouped the techniques into the ptuiit 116 movements.

THt 116 MOVEMENTS OF THE WOODEN DUMMY TECHNIQUES

l!i«s pie sent 116 movements of the Wooden Dummy Techniques are divided into eight sections, as explained below:

ItctlonOne: Ten movements beginning from the left Prefighting Posture, mainly consisting of the Prefighting Posture, the Neck-pulling Hand, the left and the right Tan-sau and Lying Palm, and the Jaun-sau. In this section stress is placed on footwork, lection Two: Ten movements beginning from the right Prefighting Posture.

lection Three: Ten movements beginning from the Slap-blocks movement. Stress is laid on the variation of the Slap-blocks both at the In-Door and Outdoor Areas. The Section also offers valuable palm exercises for both attacks and defense.

lection Four: Nine movements beginning from the Sideward Palm. The importance of this section lies in the variation of the Inquisitive-arms and their co-ordination with the Side Thrusting Kick. Stress is placed on the application of the skill of "Thrust forward while the hand is freed", to launch a counter attack with the arm or the leg while being hard-pressed by the opponent's powerful attacks. lUction Five: Twenty-one movements beginning from the Double Tan-sau. In this section the trainee learns how to sneak into the opponent's defense line and attack his weak points with an aptly applied force, such asdrillnwj lit lit« Circling block and drilling to in skilful footwoi V (in getting to the opponent's side and attack him.

Section Six: Fifteen movements beginning from the Fook unn l| offers mainly training in the application of thu Po ''afe Cheung (Double Palms) technique.

Section Seven: Fifteen movements beginning from the left & null Gaun-sau. Stress is laid on the changing of the Llony^M to the Grappling-hand and its application in co-orriirwttlffl with other palm attacks. The last part of this mhjIM stresses drilling in the application of the movemeni oflM the Crossed Stamp-kick, the most tactical kicklflj technique in the Wing Tsun Kuen, and the variation if the steps.

Section Eight: Twenty-six movements, beginning from the left A n^l Lower Bong-sau, and ending at the withdrawal movement Most the kicking techniques are included in this sectloffl

Grandmaster Yip Man had made the shooting of this set of photos ;i Hi years before he died, when he had just "dosed his door" from li|| martial art career {to "close door" is Chinese kung-fu term, which mean« shutting the door of the gymasium and stopping to admit discipUs), lie meant to pass his Wooden Dummy Techniques to someone who could keep the complete set of it and pass it to further generations, bccaufll even since he began admitting students, there were arguments anion® tutors about the correct form of the Wooden Dummy Technique». Ofl course some one might have intentional changed some of the Wooden Dummy movements, while others might have learnt only a few of Uiem before ceasing their studies, and so had to create some movements i«» (ill up the missing part that he had not learnt. Some others might lumi received different coaching for the front and the latter part from Grand -master Yip Man during the period when the Wooden Dummy Technique were undergoing a "Course of Change". Still others might have learnt only ¿1 few separate movements of Wing Tsun Kuen, but decided to set! up a personal gymnasium to teach students, only as an "unqualifnj«l instructor", who, in order to cheat their students and other laymen, found it necessary to "create" some Wing Tsun Wooden Dummy move-ments That is why Grandmaster Yip Man had finally decided to film his whole set of Wooden Dummy Techniques, to show the correct move*

ft*« hi ihhoutdi all the time had no intention of making these technique up* ii to the public.

lit I hi t the set of photos of the Wooden Dummy Techniques are not yet (f«tiiiplet(\ because there are still some missing movements. The reason fin illi. is that at the time of making the film, both Grandmaster Yip Mni 11 iicl the one who took these photos had no intention of disclosing tilt techniques to the public, but meant only to leave some proof to his foliovw iv There were few among Grandmaster Yip Man's students who |»pi this set of photos of the Wooden Dummy Techniques. The very kW who did receive a set included the one or two most favourite lUrlpli-s. (and of course his own sons!)

Today Grandmaster Yip Man has been dead for years. Those who own IliU sot of photos of the Wooden Dummy Techniques would be 1111111«'rous And therefore the Wooden Dummy Techniques are no longer * necrct.

However, for those who have not learnt the complete set of the Wooden Dummy Techniques, this incomplete set of photos will make them feel Jlorr confused. For this reason, we feel that it is our duty to make the |ll complete. That is exactly the purpose of this book, which is a product ol ilr cooperation of Master Yip Chun, one of my fellow-classmates, and I myself.

It in my hope that readers, especially those who are also followers of plnjt I sun System, will find the real outlook of the Wing Tsun Wooden Dummy Techniques. That is also the primary aim of this passage.

IOth Luvet M. O.C. of Int. Wing Tsun Leung Ting Martial-Art Association.

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