Surviving World War III
Sulfur mustard was first synthesized in the early 1800s and was first used on the battlefield during World War I by Germany in July 1917. Despite its introduction late in that conflict, mustard produced the most chemical casualties, although fewer than 5 percent of the casualties who reached medical treatment facilities died. Italy allegedly used mustard in the 1930s against Abyssinia. Egypt apparently employed mustard in the 1960s against Yemen, and Iraq used mustard in the 1980s against Iran and the Kurds. Mustard is still considered a major threat agent of former Warsaw Pact countries and third world countries. The U.S. manufactured mustard during World War I and World War II and maintains a stockpile that is currently undergoing destruction. Nomenclature. Sulfur mustard manufactured by the Levinstein process contains up to 30 percent impurities (mostly sulfur) and is known as H. Mustard made by a distillation procedure is almost pure and is known as HD (distilled mustard). An...
Mustard vapor and liquid readily penetrate thin layers of most fabrics (but not the chemical protective ensemble) to reach underlying skin. Although mustard dissolves relatively slowly in aqueous solutions such as sweat, the lipophilicity of mustard guarantees effective absorption through even intact skin. Penetration is rapid (1 to 4 mcg cm2-min) and is enhanced by moisture, heat, and thin skin. This explains the otherwise baffling observation that World War I mustard burns involved the scrotum in 42 percent of cases, but the presumably more readily exposed hands in only 4 percent of cases. Ocular and respiratory routes of entry are also important, as is parenteral absorption in casualties with conventional wounds. Ingestion (enteral absorption) was an important route of entry for mustard in the sailors exposed outside Bari in World War II. Approximately 10 percent of the amount of mustard that begins to penetrate the skin will bind to the skin as fixed (reacted) mustard the...
With the current-day SEAL teams having had their origin in the Scouts and Raiders, Naval Combat Demolition Units, and Underwater Demolition Teams of World War II, it is not surprising that combat swimmer operations are still an important part of the Naval Special Warfare mission. These operations may last as little as one or two hours in some situations, and as long as eight to 10 hours in others. You may be swimming on the surface or swimming underwater compass courses with the Draeger LAR V or MK Ifj closed-circuit underwater breathing apparatuses. These operations are often carried out in very cold water thus, hypothermia is a constant concern. In many instances, you will be towing something in the water (usually something with a very rapid rate of combustion), thereby increasing the effort needed to accomplish the mission. Some missions involve exiting the water and climbing up the side of a ship using a caving ladder or other climbing apparatus. These are difficult maneuvers...
The armies of some of our potential enemies outnumber us. They possess large numbers of excellent tanks, personnel carriers, artillery pieces, airplanes, and chemical and nuclear weapons. Our Army needs competent and confident leaders who are bold, innovative, and willing to take well-calculated risks within the commander's intent. Human nature has not changed since man first engaged in war leaders and soldiers in future battles will experience the same fears and emotions felt in past battles. Leadership will continue to be the most essential element of combat power, providing the key to mission accomplishment, winning battles, arid protecting the ideals of our nation.
While conventional operations are constantly conditioned by the threat of the imminent use of nuclear weapons, Chinese tactics at the lower level vary little in either case. The major difference is that on a nuclear battlefield there will be much greater dispersal of forces.
The Smith & Wesson Military and Police model caliber .38 Special is probably the most popular revolver in its field. Since World War II its makers have concentrated on making many improvements and additions to their extensive line of hand guns. The factory now offers the world's most complete line of hand guns that have been especially designed to meet all conccivable policc and military needs.
Human beings are getting more knowledgeable nowadays. Science and technology are advancing. Harmful products are continuously being produced by these intelligent minds. What are the threats that they have brought to the mankind Fear and worries consequently arise. Everyone fears the explosion of wars and nuclear weapons. This is a cogent evidence that our intellect is misleading us. Therefore various discoveries and so-called material progress may in fact harm us and leave us with a nagging sense of insecurity.
Sun Xi Kun left Tianjin in 1937 and moved to Nanjing where he had been invited to teach at the Central Martial Arts Academy. It is not known to me exactly how many years Sun stayed in Nanjing (the Central Martial Arts Academy moved to Chong Jing with the Nationalist Government in 1943), or if he followed the School's move to Chong Jing, but he eventually ended up back in Tianjin. He most likely went back home at the end of World War II (1945), but that is just speculation. He may have returned home prior to this time. Unfortunately for Sun, his troubles in Northern China were not over. Shortly after the end of World War II, China found herself in the middle of a civil war between the Communists and the Nationalists. After the Communists took power of the country in
As early as 1956, then CCP Chairman Mao Zedong proposed significant changes in China's allocation of national resources in order to finance the development of guided missiles and nuclear weapons in the hope of avoiding nuclear blackmail. The desire to attain status as an independent great power was thus a factor in Chinese national policy since the early days of the People's Republic. Although the Soviet Union had promised to assist Chinese development of guided missiles and nuclear weapons systems in 1957, Mao Zedong was reportedly unwilling to meet one of Moscow's conditions the subordination of Chinese foreign and defense policy interests to a joint Chinese-Soviet Far Eastern Military Command. When Moscow failed to support Chinese interests during the 1958 offshore islands crisis, an impasse developed and relations between the two nations deteriorated. By 1961, most Soviet technicians involved in 2d Artillery development had left China. - Following this reversal, China is thought...
Fu Zhen Song had moved from Northern China to Canton in 1928 to teach martial arts on behalf of the Central Martial Arts Academy in Nanjing (for more detailed information about Fu Zhen Song, please refer to Pa Kua Chang Journal, Vol. 2 No. 6 and Vol. 5, No. 2). During World War II, Fu had left central Canton and moved his family to the northern outskirts of the city because the provincial martial arts academy where he was teaching was closed down. He was traveling quite often during the war and wanted to take his family to a safe place. After the war, Fu returned to the city alone in order to re-establish himself before he brought his family back to the central part of the city. When he first returned he did not have much money
World War II reemphasized that there must be a unified supreme command in all military operations, small and large. This holds true in law enforcement. The raid commander, once chosen, must be given authority and his decisions must be carried out explicitly by all members of the raiding party. Innate qualities of leadership, experience and sound judgment are requisites in any commander. In the Armed Forces, the choice of a commander for any given operation is ordinarily dictated by rank but in civil law enforcement, the selection of the leader and of the personnel to carry out the raid is sometimes not so simple. Raiding parties often are made up of representatives of different law enforcement bodies. Overlapping jurisdiction, and a need for additional strength and experienced personnel, will often result in the raiding party being made up of representatives of State, Federal, county and municipal police forces. Such a mixed personnel situation presents problems in the planning and...
Already at the end of World War I (prior to the proscription of war by positive international law), plans were made to prosecute the German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, on account of his personal responsibility for the war. In Article 227 of the Versailles Treaty of Peace, the Allied and Associated Powers charged the Kaiser with 'a supreme offence against international morality and the sanctity of treaties'.1 As the language of the article suggests, the Kaiser's acts were looked upon as an offence not against international law but against international morality2 (and the sanctity of treaties, a phrase with a religious more than a legal connotation). In any event, the Kaiser found asylum in the Netherlands, not a contracting party to the Treaty of Versailles, and that country refused to extradite him on the ground that it was not obligated by international law to do so.3 In the era between the two World Wars, the criminality of aggressive war was heralded in several international instruments,...
In its use, have improved much since the World War II period. Increasing world tension, nationalism, and racial unrest, combined and motivated by doctrines and creeds such as world Communism, have now reached a dangerous stage. Directed mob violence is now one of the means most commonly used to gain or destroy political power. Tear gas and other chemical agents, when properly used, in the right concentration at the right time, are often the only means to control an ugly situation without resorting to actual bloodshed. Many times the use of extreme force and deadly weapons only increases the violence potential.
One example of black propaganda was the blanket of secrecy which covered the Allied troops prior to the invasion of Normandy during World War II. The English kept the Germans busy reading dispatches about troop movements and preparations to attack across the Channel at Calais. They even built hollow buildings and constructed entire encampments and stockpiles so that Nazi aircraft would believe the invasion force was in one place while they were actually massing in another. Likewise, the German command was lulled into a false sense of security by the belief that their coastal defenses were impenetrable-which they almost were.
During World War II interest was revived in this type of fighting and many members of the armed services were given instruction in stick and cane fighting. The principles are much the same only the length, diameter, and strength of the stick cause variation in the technique.
Our Thirty Second Commandant, General James L. Jones envisioned a program to enable every Marine to realize their full potential as a warrior. Drawing upon our rich legacy of leadership and heritage of innovation, the Marine Corps developed the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program. The Marine Warrior skill is a martial art the roots of which reach back to the boarding parties of the Continental Marines, extend through the Raiders of World War II, and include the modern complexities of the three block war. Beginning with the Continental Marines who were renowned as sharpshooters in the rigging of Navy ships, to their skill as boarding and landing parties where the sword and bayonet were the tools of their trade, Marines have continued to develop and hone their martial skills up to the twentieth century. During World War I the skill of the bayonet was supplemented with the first training in unarmed techniques to meet the challenges of trench warfare. This training continued to evolve up to...
Hit me here as hard as you can, right in the throat. You can try and strangle me if you'd like. Do you have a rope I'll hang by my neck for you. I've had special training, you can't choke me. Go ahead and try, Liang Ke Quan ) said during our first meeting in a voice as rough as snow tires on a gravel road. After watching him bang his body into a 3 foot diameter, 40 foot tall tree a dozen times and seeing the leaves rattle with every thud of his shoulder, I didn't doubt that he could actually do what he was saying. But what the heck, I wanted to see it done, so we gave it a try. However, try as we might punching, poking, and strangling did not phase the man. But I suppose that after living a life as a dedicated Ba Gua and Xing Yi practitioner, fighting the Japanese during World War II, fighting against the Communist as a Guo Min Dang It - Kuo Min Tang) Army officer and then subsequently spending fifteen years in a Communist prison, it would take more...
After World War II, Oyama started to study Goju Ryu (pp. 170-171). He also took up Judo (p. 166), achieving yon-dan (fourth-degree black belt) after only four years. Oyama's life changed yet again after killing a knife-wielding attacker with a single strike to the head. Taking a life left him distraught. He supported the dead man's widow and children by working on their farm until they were able to take care of themselves. He then retreated into the mountains for a year and a half, meditating and developing his martial arts in constant training.
This is 1 well-known police and military arm. It has been in production since World War II and is still commercially available. It has a cyclic rate of j00-550 rounds per minute. It can be fired either on semi- or full automatic. Magazine capacity is 12. This gun can be used with the sights with accuracy due to its stock design.
The expression 'truce' is embedded in tradition and history. It acquired particular resonance in the Middle Ages, in the form of the Truce of God (Treuga Dei). This was an ecclesiastical measure by which the Catholic Church suspended warfare in Christendom on certain days of the week, as well as during Lent and church festivals.127 The phrase 'cease-fire' has been introduced into international legal parlance in the present (post-World War II) era. Although some scholars ascribe to truce and cease-fire divergent implications, the present practice of States - for the most part -treats them as synonymous. 12- As examples for an indiscriminate use of the two terms, it is possible to adduce successive resolutions adopted by the Security Council during Israel's War of Independence in 1948.12
Hung I-Mien, who is currently 73 years old, was the middle Hung brother. Four years younger than Hung I-Wen and five years older than Hung I-Hsiang, Hung I-Mien was at the right age at the wrong time and was drafted into the Japanese Army during World War II (around 1940). Although the Hung's father and eldest brother had started studying Shaolin before Hung I-Mien was drafted, he had not been very interested in studying martial arts and therefore his first exposure to combat arts was bayonet training in the Army. Every morning the soldiers would wake up and practice basic bayonet thrusting techniques. Although Hung I-Mien received this training over fifty years ago, he still loves to demonstrate this skill. During each of our two visits with him, when the topic of his training in the Army came up he went into a back room and came out with two wooden Japanese style swords and had the translator attack him. He dodged and blocked the attacks as if he had been continuously studying the...
I was out of Okinawa, and I continued the standing and the breathing and the stretching and several moves that he had shown me to use for when I went in for a prisoner snatch. These techniques proved to be very effective. When you go in for a prisoner snatch, as soon as you get your hands on the enemy you got to take him down fast. That is what he showed me, and the moves worked. Up to that point in time in the Special Forces we had studied Okinawan Karate and the hand-to-hand combat that came out of World War II and Korea. It wasn't bad, but this was a lot better. So I knew that
Prior to study with Chang Chun-Feng, Hung I-Hsiang had experience with the Shaolin his family practiced and he also studied Judo during the Japanese occupation of Taiwan during World War II. When the three Hung brothers started their study with Chang the first thing they were taught was Hsing-I's p'i ch'uan (splitting fist). This was followed by the other four fists of Hsing-I Ch'uan. Hung stated that because of his base in Shaolin he was able to easily transition to the movements of Hsing-I Ch'uan.
Since World War II increasing use has been made of body armor vests. Two types tested by the U. S. Army have proved most successful thus far. Each weighs about eight pounds. One is made of twelve layers of spot-bonded nylon. The other, the Marine Corps model issued to the 1st Marine Division in Korea in 1952, consists of a vest with built-in inside pockets into which twenty laminated fiberglass doron armor plates, each about five inches square, are inserted, to
Joe told me that in order to fully appreciate Zhang Yi Zhong's study of diet, the story really needs to go back to his life in Shanghai before World War II. Prior to WWII, Shanghai was becoming, in many ways, a very Westernized city. Visiting Shanghai today, one will notice that many of the buildings that were constructed early in this century have a Western style architecture. When Zhang Yi Zhong was a young man living in Shanghai, it was popular to eat Western food, study Western science, and visit Western doctors when one got sick. Zhang Yi Zhong studied Western science (chemistry), visited Western trained doctors, and ate Western food, however, even when he was in his twenties, he was careful about what he ate. His friends in Shanghai would tease him and say that he was going to grow up to be a dietitian.
The significance of a treaty of peace The classical and ideal method for the termination of an inter-State war is the conclusion of a treaty of peace between the belligerents. Traditionally, treaties of peace have had an extraordinary impact on the evolution of international law, from Westphalia (1648) to Versailles (1919). The series of treaties of peace signed at the close of the World War I even encompassed, in their first part (Articles 1-26), the Covenant of the League ofNations22 (the predecessor of the United Nations). Despite their unique political standing, treaties of peace are no different juridically from other types of inter-State agreements, and they are governed by the general law of treaties.23 After World War II, and as a direct consequence of the 'Cold War', no treaty of peace could be reached with the principal vanquished country (Germany), which was divided for forty-five years. It was only in 1990, following a sea change in world politics, that a Treaty on the...
During World War II, Fairbairn was recruited to teach hand-to-hand combat to U.S. and British commandos, and to members of the OSS. Fairbairn and Eric Anthony Sykes (another member of Fairbairn's Shanghai squad) developed a system of sentry removal and quick, ruthless tactics for dealing with German troops. They also developed a knife -the Sykes-Fairbairn commando knife - for use with their style. Colonel Rex Applegate of the OSS contributed to their style, too, as well as to the pistol, submachine gun, and rifle training used by these special-operations troops. Some of Fairbairn's teachings were published in the book Get Tough. Fairbairn died in 1960.
Hand gun used throughout the winning of the West. Primarily they chose the revolver because it has better frame construction for a swift and comfortable grip and draw. It is faster on the first shot (double action) than most automatics, when complete draw and firing are necessary. It has better all-around balance and pointing qualities than most automatics and, by using various grip adapters, can be fitted to any type of hand. European arms manufacturers have never put out a revolver comparable, in shape or feel or shooting qualities, with those of our country. Their principal manufacture has been the automatic hand gun. Just prior to, and during World War II, the Germans began to manufacture double action automatics, the Walther and Mauser. Manufacture of these guns was discontinued at the end of hostilities. This year, for the first time, an excellent, commercial model of a double action automatic suitable for both police and military use has been introduced by Smith & Wesson.
I think that after the Age of Reason, the Industrial Revolution, the Atomic Age, and the Information Revolution which resulted in the Electronic Village and world markets, we are ready for an Age of Creativity that will be and is already becoming an age of technomagic. The break-up of the Soviet Union lowers the danger of world war and may be the beginning of a Pax Capitalista that will result in the sharing of ideas and periods of growth that will indeed create a new world order. If nothing else it indicates the real paucity of thought from political scientists or the prediction capability of political economists.
The year 1928 was a watershed date in the history of the legal regulation of the use of inter-State force. That was when the General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy, known as the Kellogg-Briand Pact (after the American Secretary of State and the French Foreign Minister), was signed in Paris.1 Before the outbreak of World War II, the Pact had sixty-three contracting parties,2 a record number for that period.
Although we hope that, in the domestic U. S., calm will continue to prevail, the world situation is such that we are no longer isolated from our neighbors and are therefore not immune to alien influences. The threat (and certainly the aftermath) of nuclear war could greatly disrupt civilian calm and order. During times of tension the professional agitator will seek to foment unrest and disorder. For this reason the police of this country had better look ahead to the possibility of more troubled times and prepare for use of mob control techniques which previously have not seemed necessary to our internal security and situation.
For years prior to World War II, this Japanese method of combat was cloaked in mystery. It was regarded by the public as a somewhat miraculous power that enabled the user to conquer a hapless opponent by a mere flick of the wrist. As long as there was lack of knowledge on the subject and an element of mystery surrounded its use, this was to some degree true. Taking advantage of the element of surprise, the jiu jitsu expert did not fight as his opponent expected and could thereby gain the initial advantage, which he never relinquished. This was evident, but not understood, when certain jiu jitsu experts publicly overcame unskilled opponents in scheduled exhibitions.
During the 1940s and 1950s, Pentjak Silat grew even more prominent in indonesia. The islands were Dutch possessions when they fell to the Japanese in World War ii. Many Indonesians resisted and fought alongside the Dutch against the Japanese. After defeating the Japanese, the indonesians turned to their fight for independence. The locals widely credited Pentjak Silat with giving them an edge over their opponents. its role in the fighting is debatable -
Filipino martial arts saw regular use in combat until relatively recent times. During the American occupation, after the Spanish-American War, the local resistance fought back using martial-arts skills. The ferocious Moros inspired the American military to beef up the service pistol from .38 to .45 caliber in order to better stop fanatical warriors. During World War ii, resistance fighters against the Japanese used Escrima and Pentjak Silat alongside firearms and explosives to attack the Japanese garrison.
After World War II, the large U.S. military presence in Okinawa helped spread Karate in the West. Many servicemen studied karate-do in Okinawa and brought their skills home with them. Today, a wide range of martial-arts schools exist in Okinawa and many American servicemen still train while stationed there.
From 1910 to 1945, Japan occupied Korea and Japanese martial arts displaced Korean ones. When World War II ended, though, Korea asserted its proud martial heritage. Traditional styles were resurrected or came out of hiding, and new styles were formed with ancient names. Japanese influence was still great, as many Korean martial artists had training in Karate (pp. 169-172) or Jujutsu (p. 166-168).
During World War II, commandos trained in military martial arts. They needed skills to eliminate sentries and to fight using improvised weapons - or no weapons - when the ammunition ran out or circumstances made firearms undesirable. The knife, in particular, was popular. After WWII, Asian martial arts continued to flourish. European judoka helped make Judo a competitive Olympic sport, and influenced its rules. Meanwhile, other Asian arts -such as Karate (pp. 169-172), and Pentjak Silat (pp. 189-191) brought back from Indonesia by the Dutch - became more popular. The French kickboxing style of Savate (pp. 193-194), its practitioners decimated by the World Wars, became more sportive in form.
Sulfur mustard has posed a military threat since its introduction on the battlefield in World War I. Most of this chapter concerns this agent. Unless otherwise noted, the term mustard refers to sulfur mustard. Lewisite (L) was synthesized during the late stages of World War I, but probably has not been used on a battlefield. The Lewisite antidote, British-Anti-Lewisite (BAL), finds medicinal use today as a heavy-metal chelator.
The zealot factor must also be considered. A zealot might be, for instance, an individual with a personal motive for revenge so overpowering that it ensures complete dedication to the cause. Or, through intensive training and psychological manipulation, an elite team of fanatic followers can be trained to sacrifice even their own lives to accomplish a given mission. In battle, these trained zealots behave much like the Viking berserker warriors, remaining virtually impervious to injury or pain until either the conflict is resolved or they are forcibly overcome by sheer weight of numbers and loss of blood. When sent out as assassins, such warriors use any covert means available to them to isolate the target and destroy it mysteriously. If captured, which is highly unlikely, they will kill themselves rather than reveal their identity. One notable example of this kind of warrior is provided by the Japanese kamikaze pilots of World War 11, who flung themselves upon the enemy of their...
Combined data from U.S. forces in World War I and Iranians in the Iraq-Iran conflict suggest equal incidence of eye, airway, and skin involvement (between 80 and 90 percent for each). However, there were higher incidences of eye and lung damage in Iranian casualties than in World War I casualties, probably because of the larger amount of evaporation of the agent in the hot climate. During World War I, mild conjunctivitis accounted for 75 percent of eye injuries, with recovery in one to two weeks. Moderate conjunctivitis with minimal corneal involvement, blepharospasm, edema of the lids and conjunctivae, and orange-peel roughening of the cornea accounted for 15 percent of the cases, with recovery in four to six weeks. Severe corneal involvement accounted for 10 percent of the cases. Those with permanent corneal damage accounted for less than 1 percent of cases. About 0.1 percent of these severe casualties would meet the criteria for legal blindness today. Central nervous system (CNS)....
Erythema should be treated with calamine or other soothing lotion or cream (e.g., 0.25 percent camphor and menthol, calamine) to reduce burning and itching. Small blisters (under 1-2 cm) should be left intact, but because larger ones will eventually break (the blister fluid does not contain mustard), they should be carefully unroofed. Denuded areas should be irrigated three to four times daily with saline, another sterile solution, or soapy water and then liberally covered with a topical antibiotic such as silver sulfadiazine or mafenide acetate to a thickness of 1-2 mm. If an antibiotic cream is not available, sterile petrolatum will be useful. Modified Dakins solution (sodium hypochlorite) was used in World War I and in Iranian casualties for irrigation and as an antiseptic.
Repeated symptomatic exposures to mustard over a period of years (as in manufacturing workers) seem to be well established as a causal factor in an increased incidence of upper airway cancer. However, the association between a single exposure to mustard and airway cancer is not well established. A single, severe exposure to mustard may have contributed to other airway problems, such as chronic bronchitis, based on World War I data. A new complication seen in Iranian casualties from the Iran-Iraq War in the 1980s was late-onset tracheobronchial stenosis, which presumably would have been seen in World War I casualties had antibiotic therapy been available to allow those who died from secondary bacterial pneumonia to survive.
After the 16th century, the art continued development under the new name of tae kwon ( foot and fist, or kicking and punching ). The art was forced underground in the first decade of the 20th century, when the Japanese occupied Korea. In 1953, well after World War II, when Korea was freed from Japanese rule, it became tae kwon do ( the way of kicking and punching ).
Some people have mentioned that this swastika sign 'Ft looks like that of Hitler's. Now I'd like to tell you that this sign itself does not connote any class concepts. Some people say that if its corner is tilted to this side, it would be Hitler's emblem. This does not matter as both sides rotate. It was 2500 years ago in Sakyamuni's time that our human society came to recognize this sign widely. It is but a few decades from Hitler's time during the World War II up till now. He usurped this sign. But his is black in colour, and different from ours. Moreover, his sign stands upright with the points facing up. That's all for this Falun. We have only mentioned the form of its appearance.
Military and Police Model shown above was a general favorite before World War II. It is still preferred by some users. The Smith Sc Wesson 2-in.-barrel. Military and Police Model shown above was a general favorite before World War II. It is still preferred by some users.
Arwrology is derived from the old Welsh word arwr9 meaning an all-out hand-to-hand fighter. It was developed by Gordon E. Perrigard, a Canadian medical doctor who combined his knowledge of advanced ju-jitsu with his knowledge of human anatomy to come up with this devas-tatingly effective close-in combat system. Arwrology was originally released in 1943 in Canada for use in training combatants for World War II. Martialists from all over the world quickly hailed its superior fighting methods, and today it remains one of the most highly sought after and most valuable fighting manuals in the world. This reprint edition of Arwrology, Gordon Perrigard's classic book of World War II-era hand-to-hand combat, is published with the permission of the original Canadian publisher, Renouf Publishing Company. Visit its Web site at www.renoufbooks.com.
Instinctive pointing, sometimes called hip-shooting or body-pointing, is the best method of shooting shoulder weapons in close-quarter combat, when the time or light element is not great enough to permit the conventional use of the weapon from the shoulder position. Reports from recent combat theaters continually refer to hip-shooting in close-quarter fighting. In World War II, the Allies trained their men intensively to use instinctive pointing when they reached the combat theaters. It is an effective method of combat shooting and its principles should be understood by all shooters, civilian and military, who arc likely to engage in close-quarter combat.
The Navy inventory includes a variety of ships of foreign (Soviet, Japanese, British, and United States) origin, as well as an increasing number and assortment of ships from Chinese yards. Many of those supplied by the Soviet Union and almost all of those taken over from the Chinese Nationalists are World War II warships. Domestic production resulting from an ambitious shipbuilding program begun in the 1950s includes submarines, missile boats, gunboats, torpedo boats, patrol boats, destroyers, frigates, and auxiliary craft.
TaeKwonDo can trace its philosophical background to Korea's warring states period, when three separate kingdoms were combined into one in 670 CE. One of the forces that helped this happen were the Hwa Rang Do, which translates as flowering youth . These men were formidable warriors in the older styles of TaeKyon and Soo Bakh, and their honor code could best be described as a form of Southeast Asian chivalry. This honor code is the philosophical backbone of modern TaeKwonDo. Japanese martial arts also heavily influenced modern TaeKwonDo, because the Japanese occupied Korea from 1910 until the end of World War II. Following the Japanese occupation, native Korean Martial Arts began to reappear, including the following eight major kwans Chung Do Kwan, Moo Duk Kwan, Yun Moo Kwan, Chang Moo Kwan, Oh Do Kwan, Ji Do Kwan, Chi Do Kwan, and Sung Moo Kwan. In 1955 these kwans united into Tae Soo Do, but by 1957 more and more Koreans were calling this art TaeKwonDo to honor TaeKyon, which they...
In 1905, an Okinawan instructor named Gichin Funakoshi introduced Okinawa-te to Japan, teaching it in public schools. At that time, its name was formalized as Karate. After World War II, American servicemen stationed in Japan learned the art, which helped to spread it worldwide.
In the decades after the Boxer Rebellion and before World War II, China is a land in chaos, with enemies inside and out. Foreigners and Chinese can adventure side-by-side. In the 1920s and 1930s, feuding warlords, White Russian refugees, Western adventurers, encroaching Japanese, and a Communist revolution provide an explosive mix . . . all in a land steeped in martial arts. Many period-piece movies are set in this time, including the Once Upon a Time in China series and Bruce Lee's The Chinese Connection.
Most post-apocalypse stories are set after a nuclear war, natural disaster (asteroid strikes and plagues are popular), or supernatural force (often zombies) has devastated the world. Civilization has collapsed or is rapidly disintegrating, and its comforts - from automobiles to mass-produced ammunition - are in short supply. In some scenarios, tiny pockets of survivors carve out lives in the aftermath. In others, warlords forge empires from the ruins.
A war campaign is an excellent place for the martial arts, obviously. The PCs needn't belong to a national army - mercenaries are common throughout history. During global conflicts, such as the World Wars, adventurers on the fringes of major theatres or in minor theatres might choose sides on the basis of personal gain, not national allegiance. In smaller struggles, soldiers of fortune can nearly always find employment. World War II is especially fertile ground for a Martial Arts game. Japanese officers carry swords and have martial-arts training in the form of Aikijutsu (p. 149), Jujutsu (pp. 166168), Kenjutsu (pp. 173-175), or Kendo (pp. 175) their enlisted underlings practice Jukenjutsu (p. 197). Allied commandos learn Fairbairn Close Combat Training (p. 182-183p). Burmese, Filipino, and Indonesian guerrillas fight the Japanese with guns, sticks, and swords. Many 20th-century style originators lived through and fought in WWII.
Maung Gyi - son of one of the men who developed Bando after World War II - introduced Bando to the U.S. in 1959, formed the American Bando Association (ABA), and founded its namesake style. ABA Bando is a powerful style meant for self-defense and combat situations. The ABA
For which there is no defense if the victim is taken by surprise. It is not unlikely that it will be used again, since many individuals, in all armies during World War II, received training in it, just as they received training in methods of strangulation. Another method of knife attack or assassination, not uncommon in some areas of the world, may be encountered. It is as old as history and was a method taught to certain groups for use in assassination in Ciennan-occupicd countries during World War II.
Masutatsu Oyama is the creator of Kyokushin Karate. Born in Korea in 1923, Oyama began to study the martial arts at the age of nine. As the Second World War approached, Oyama moved to Japan and trained to become a pilot. While doing so he continued his study of the martial arts, studying Karate under the tutelage of Gichin Funakoshi, the founder of Shotokan Karate (see the Shotokan Karate entry for more information). Following WWII Oyama trained in Goju-ryu Karate under So Nei Chu, who was himself a student of Chojun Miyagi, that style's founder (see Goju-Ryu Karate for more information). Following a retreat to the mountains, during which Oyama trained for nearly three years in complete solitude, he began to tour and demonstrate his skills. During a yearlong trip through the United States, Oyama would accept any challenge as he traveled to dojo after dojo, and defeated all who opposed him, often with a single punch. Upon his return to Japan in 1953 he opened his first dojo in a vacant...
Bando is a fighting art from Burma. (According to some scholars, the proper name of the art, strictly speaking, is Thaing Bando is the unarmed branch of the art and Banshay the armed branch.) The word bando is generally interpreted to mean art of combat or systems of defense. Bando is thought to have developed under various influences, including Thai, Chinese, Tibetan and Indian each Burmese ethnic subgroup has its own form of the art. The British banned the art in 1885, but it continued to be taught in secret after World War II Bando was organized and taught more openly than in the past.
Every American soldier, officer or enlisted man, should be issued a lighting knife and trained in its use. Although in World War I our men were issued a trench knife for close quarter work, to date in this conflict, the majority of our soldiers have not been issued a true fighting knife, the deadliest of all close quarter weapons. The trench knife of 1918 was a short-bladed, unwieldy thing, with a large combination handle and brass knuckles for its hilt. It was possible to use in only one way due to the peculiar handle construction. Little definite instruction in its use as a fighting implement was given. Knives at present fall into two general categories, those designed for straight fighting and the multi-purpose weapon, called the utility knife. The M3 knife of recent issue is designed as a utility knife but it can be cut down into a true fighting knife with a little effort. Its construction is basically good others have been designed and issued for fighting alone, but their general...
Pentjak-Silat was first developed as a relatively crude fighting form between 600 and 1000 AD, probably beginning on the island of Riouw and passing from there into the Menangkabau kingdoms of Sumatra and out to all the islands. By the 14th century, it was sufficiently developed that the government saw fit to restrict it by law, the Majapahit sultans of the islands and their court officials were the only ones allowed to learn Pentjak-Silat. However, ongoing Hindu-Muslim conflicts in that time period and thereafter kept Pentjak-Silat alive among the populace. It was used to fight the native wars of independence against the Dutch, and against the Japanese during World War II. It has continued to be used for intertribal (and interschool) fighting right up until the present day.
Like many Asian styles, Silat has legendary origins. For instance, one form of Silat claims that a woman from Sumatra saw a fight between a snake and a bird, and used their moves as inspiration for the style. In reality, Silat appears to be a mixture of native martial arts influenced by Indian and Chinese styles. During the Japanese invasion of Indonesia during World War II, Japanese arts were also an influence.
Qwan Ki Do is a Vietnamese martial arts style whose name means way of the fist and the energy. It was founded after World War II by Pham Xuan Tong. Qwan Ki Do resembles Karate in many ways, but is more acrobatic and flamboyant in nature. In addition to standard barehanded fighting techniques, the style teaches a number of weapons, such blades, various polearms and sticks and staffs.
This book was first conceived and published early in World War II. If it had not been for the type of conflict experienced, combined with the circumstances and opportunities of my own personal assignments, it would never have been written. Frequent armed conflict and mob violence since the end of World War II has brought about an increasing demand for a text on these very difficult subjects. Since the time of the caveman, techniques of personal combat have been in the process of evolution. There are many methods and systems of personal combat. The methods of teaching them arc equally varied. Some are good, some bad, some practical, others nonpractical. This book does not, and could not, cover all methods. It is a compilation of the most practical methods known to the writer, methods that have been developed and used during and after World War II by our own police and military, those of our Allies and even our enemies. Unarmed combat is just what the name implies a system of fighting...
During this period, Thailand went to World War I. The Thai army was stationed in France with General Praya Dhepasadin as Commander. He loved MuayThai and he organized a bout to entertain the European servicemen and laymen. They enjoyed the bout very much and thus was born European interest in MuayThai. The stadium was run by military personnel and it did very good business. Some of the income was donated to support military activities. After several years, the Second World War broke out. At that time the boxing stadium was closed. Japanese troops arrived in Thailand on December 8 B.E. 2484 (1941 CE).
History Gatka is a Sikh weapon-oriented martial art with origins in the Punjab region of India. Gatka has been used to great effect on a number of occasions in recent history, from the streets of Shanghai in the 1930's (where Sikh Gatka warriors were used as riot police) to Sikh regiments in World War II, which were almost exclusively composed of Gatka warriors. Gatka fighting techniques are based on movements called Panthra, which are initially practiced without weapons to perfect the footwork and balance needed to function effectively on the battlefield. This practice technique is analogous to the Kata of the eastern martial arts. Gatka uses a number of traditional weapons, such as the Khanda (an Indian Saber), the Kirpan (a dagger), and the Kaman (a bow). However, this style also teaches the use of exotic weapons such as the Katar (Indian punch-dagger) and the Chakra (or Chakram), a circular weapon with a razor sharp edge which is thrown at the enemy. This weapon
After World War II, the American occupiers initially banned most martial arts. The ban didn't hold up for long, though. American servicemen often trained enthusiastically, and many went on to found dojos upon returning to the U.S. The most famous modern art was probably Karate (pp. 169172), introduced into Japan prior to WWII by Okinawan instructors.
Hapkido (roughly, the way of coordinated power ) is a Korean martial art. It is something of a synthesis of several other styles, including Hwarang-Do, Aikido Aikijutsu, Jujutsu, Tae Kwon Do and others. It was developed by Choi Yong Suhl, a Korean martial artist who emigrated to Japan following the Japanese occupation of his homeland in the first decade of the twentieth century. In Japan he studied Japanese martial arts (particularly Daito-ryu Aikijutsu) and integrated some of their techniques with his Korean maneuvers. When he returned to Korea after World War II, he opened the first Hapkido school so that he could teach the new style he had developed to others.
The French used about 4000 tons of cyanide in World War I without notable military success, possibly because the small one to two pound munitions used could not deliver the large amounts needed to cause biological effects. Other factors included the high volatility of cyanide (which quickly evaporated and dispersed) and its all or nothing biological activity, i.e., it caused few effects because the lethal Ct (in contrast to mustard, which causes eye damage at 1 percent of the lethal amount). The U.S. maintained a small number of cyanide munitions during World War II. Japan allegedly used cyanide against China before and during World War II, and Iraq may have used cyanide against the Kurds in the 1980s. Cyanides are also called blood agents, an antiquated term still used by many in the military. At the time of the introduction of cyanide in World War I, the other chemical agents in use caused mainly local effects. Riot-control agents injured the skin and mucous membranes from direct...
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